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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: Human

Displaying 1 - 10 of 22

Cranberry Juice Decreases Disease Activity in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Thimóteo NSB, Iryioda TMV, Alfieri DF, Rego BEF, Scavuzzi BM, Fatel E, Lozovoy MAB, Simão ANC, Dichi I.
Journal: 
Nutrition. 2019 Apr;60:112-117. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.010.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA.METHODS:A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA. The disease activity measured by Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, and several inflammatory and biochemical biomarkers were analyzed. The control group (n = 18) maintained their usual diet. The cranberry group (n = 23) consumed 500 mL/d of low-calorie cranberry juice.RESULTS:Regarding the baseline values, the cranberry group presented a decrease in the values of DAS28 (P = 0.048) and anti-CCP (P = 0.034) after 90 d of treatment, whereas changes in inflammatory biomarkers were not found.CONCLUSION:The present study indicated that cranberry juice decreases disease activity and therefore has beneficial effects for RA patients, although larger and long-term studies are needed to definitively probe this effect and to clarify the mechanisms involved.

Chronic Consumption of a Low Calorie, High Polyphenol Cranberry Beverage Attenuates Inflammation and Improves Glucoregulation and HDL Cholesterol in Healthy Overweight Humans: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Chew B; Mathison B; Kimble L; McKay D; Kaspar K; Khoo C; Chen CO; Blumberg J.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition. 10.1007/s00394-018-1643-z [doi]
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We studied the health benefits of low calorie cranberry beverage consumption on glucoregulation, oxidative damage, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in overweight but otherwise healthy humans. METHODS: 78 overweight or obese men and women (30-70 years; BMI 27-35 kg/m2) with abdominal adiposity (waist: hip>0.8 for women and >0.9 for men; waist: height>=0.5) consumed 450 mL placebo or low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry extract beverage (CEB) daily for 8 week in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Blood and urine samples were collected after overnight fast at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily beverage consumption. Blood and urine samples were also collected during 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) challenges: (1) pre-intervention without the test beverages, (2) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at baseline (week 0), and (3) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at 8 week. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, a single CEB dose at baseline lowered endothelin-1 and elevated nitric oxide and the reduced:oxidized glutathione ratio (P<0.05). Interferon-gamma was elevated (P<0.05) after a single CEB dose at baseline; however, after 8 week of CEB intervention, fasting C-reactive protein was lower (P<0.05). CEB consumption for 8 week also reduced serum insulin and increased HDL cholesterol compared to placebo (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute dose of low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry beverage improved antioxidant status, while 8 week daily consumption reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors by improving glucoregulation, downregulating inflammatory biomarkers, and increasing HDL cholesterol.

Effects of Cranberry (Vaccinum Macrocarpon) Supplementation on Iron Status and Inflammatory Markers in Rowers.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Skarpanska-Stejnborn, A. Basta, P. Trzeciak, J. Michalska, A. Kafkas, M. E. Woitas-Slubowska, D.
Journal: 
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14(7)
Abstract: 

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with cranberry (Vaccinum macrocarpon) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepcidin and selected markers of iron metabolism in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. Methods: This double-blind study included 16 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n=9), receiving 1200 mg of cranberry extract for 6 weeks, or to the placebo group (n=7). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, one minute after completing the test, and after a 24-h recovery period. The levels of hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and myoglobin were determined, along with total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Both prior and after the supplementation, a significant post-exercise increase in the concentration of IL-6 was observed in both groups. At the end of the study period, cranberry-supplemented athletes presented with significantly higher resting, post-exercise and post-recovery levels of TAC than the controls. However, a significant exercise-induced increase in the concentrations of TNF-alpha, myoglobin and hepcidin was observed solely in the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with cranberry extract contributed to a significant strengthening of antioxidant potential in individuals exposed to strenuous physical exercise. However, supplementation did not exert direct effects on other analyzed parameters: inflammatory markers and indices of iron metabolism (TNF-alpha, hepcidin and myoglobin).

Cranberry (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with improvements in vascular function: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose-response, crossover study

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Mateos A; Feliciano RP; Boeres A; Weber T; Dos Santos CN; Ventura MR; Heiss C.
Journal: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. , 2016 May 31
Abstract: 

SCOPE: Cranberries are rich in potentially bioactive (poly)phenols. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cranberry juice intake can improve vascular function in healthy men in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and to understand which of the circulating (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with vascular effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial was conducted in 10 healthy males. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were investigated at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h post-consumption of cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534, and 1910 mg of total cranberry (poly)phenols (TP), and a control drink. Plasma (poly)phenol metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF MS using authentic standards. We observed dose-dependent increases in FMD at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h with a peak at 4h and maximal effects with juice containing 1238 mg TP. A total of 60 metabolites were quantified in plasma after cranberry consumption. Twelve (poly)phenol metabolites significantly correlated with the increases in FMD, including ferulic and caffeic acid sulfates, quercetin-3-O-s-D-glucuronide and a gamma-valerolactone sulfate. CONCLUSION: (Poly)phenols in cranberry juice can improve vascular function in healthy males and this is linked to the presence of specific newly identified plasma metabolites.

Adult consumers of cranberry juice cocktail have lower C-reactive protein levels compared with nonconsumers.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Duffey KJ, Sutherland LA
Journal: 
Nutr Res 35(2):118-26
Abstract: 

Flavonoids are important bioactive plant constituents found in abundance in berries, including cranberries. Cranberry beverages have been shown to beneficially impact urinary and cardiovascular health in clinical and observational studies, but their association with anthropometric outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) consumption with flavonoid intake, and cardiometabolic and anthropometric outcomes among adults in the US data for adults (>19 years, n = 10334) were drawn from cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey combined 2005-2008 survey. We hypothesized that CJC consumers will have lower anthropometric measures and healthier cardiometabolic profiles, including lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP). A CJC consumer (n = 330) was defined as anyone consuming CJC for 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. We used multivariate linear regression models to examine differences in anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes comparing CJC consumers to nonconsumers controlling for important confounders. Consumers drank an average 404 mL (14 fl oz) of CJC for 2 days and did not have higher total energy intakes compared with nonconsumers (mean [SD], 2259 [79] vs 2112 [24], respectively). In fully adjusted models, adult CJC consumers had significantly lower levels of CRP (mean [SD], -0.13 [0.05]; P = .015), results that were strengthened after further adjustment for body mass index (mean [SD], -0.98 [0.04]; P = .027). Trends toward lower weights and lower levels of cholesterol did not reach statistical significance. Intake of cranberry polyphenols may play a role in promoting anti-inflammatory markers among CJC consumers, specifically lowering CRP levels

Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Novotny JA, Baer DJ, Khoo C, Gebauer SK, Charron CS
Journal: 
J Nutr 145(6):1185-93
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk.
METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively.
RESULTS: Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment x baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 +/- 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 +/- 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 +/- 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 +/- 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 +/- 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684.

Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
McKay DL, Chen CY, Zampariello CA, Blumberg JB
Journal: 
Food Chem 168:233-40
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults 50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2mug/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8mug/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

Acute effects of polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds on endothelial function and performance in elite athletes

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Labonté K, Couillard C, Motard-Bélanger A, Paradis M-E, Couture P, Lamarche B
Journal: 
Sports 1(3):55-68
Abstract: 

Abstract: We examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at rest, and cycling anaerobic performance, in elite athletes. In the first randomized cross-over study, FMD was measured over a three-hour period on two occasions in eight elite male and female athletes after acute consumption of either polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds (600 mg) or a polyphenol-free placebo drink. Consumption of the polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD compared to placebo (p = 0.02), with a peak at 60 min. In a second study, 12 elite male and female athletes completed a three-kilometer time trial (TT) on an ergocycle on two occasions in random order, either after consumption of 800 mg of polyphenols or a placebo. Acute intake of the polyphenol extract had no impact on the three-kilometer time trial completion. However, plasma lactate levels were significantly lower before and after the TT when subjects consumed the polyphenols vs. placebo (p

Evidence that cranberry juice may improve augmentation index in overweight men.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Ruel G. Lapointe A. Pomerleau S. Couture P. Lemieux S. Lamarche B. Couillard C.
Journal: 
Nutr Res 33(1):41-9
Abstract: 

The stiffening of arteries is a key step in atherogenesis leading to cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that dietary polyphenols may be cardioprotective through possible favorable effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. The present study was undertaken in order to examine the effect of consuming low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC), a source of polyphenols, on arterial stiffness in abdominally obese men. We hypothesize that regular CJC consumption will reduce circulating oxidized low-density lipoproteins concentrations and have a beneficial impact on endothelial function. Thirty-five men (mean age +/- SD: 45 +/- 10 years) were randomly assigned to drink 500 mL CJC/day (27% juice) or 500 mL placebo juice (PJ)/day for 4 weeks in a double-blind crossover design. Augmentation index (AIx), an index of arterial stiffness, was measured by applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the cardiometabolic profile was assessed in each participant before and after each phase of the study. We found no significant difference in AIx changes between men who consumed CJC or PJ for 4 weeks (P = .5820). Furthermore, there was no between-treatment difference in changes in AIx responses to salbutamol (P = .6303) and glyceryl trinitrate (P = .4224). No significant difference was noted in other cardiometabolic variables between men consuming PJ or CJC. However, a significant within group decrease in AIx (mean decrease +/- SE; -14.0 +/- 5.8%, P = .019) was noted following the consumption of 500 mL CJC/day for 4 weeks. Our results indicate that the effect of chronic consumption of CJC on AIx was not significantly different from changes associated with the consumption of PJ. However, the significant within-group decrease in AIx following CJC consumption in abdominally obese men may deserve further investigation.

Polyphenol-rich cranberry juice has a neutral effect on endothelial function but decreases the fraction of osteocalcin-expressing endothelial progenitor cells

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Flammer AJ, Martin EA, Gössl M,Widmer RJ, Lennon RJ, Sexton JA, Loeffler D, Khosla S,Lerman LO, Lerman A
Journal: 
Eur J Nutr DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0334-4
Abstract: 

Purpose Cranberry juice (CJ) contains a remarkably high
concentration of polyphenols, considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular and bone health. The current double-blind, randomized study was designed to test whether daily consumption of double-strength Ocean Spray light CJ (2 9 230 ml) over 4 months has beneficial effects on vascular
function and on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) carrying the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin in particular.
Methods Atotal of 84 participants (49.5 ± 16.2 years)with
peripheral endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk
factors were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (69 completed the 4-month protocol—32 in the CJ group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively). Vascular responses to reactive hyperemia were measured non-invasively by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for EPC markers, as well as osteocalcin, and counted by flow cytometry. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in bothgroups. The effect of CJ on peripheral endothelial function
and on circulating EPC counts (CD34?/CD133?/KDR?)
did not change during the study. A high percentage of
EPCs expressed osteocalcin (59.4 ± 35.7%). CJ, as compared
to placebo, induced a decrease in the fraction of
EPCs expressing osteocalcin (-8.64 ± 48.98 and
19.13 ± 46.11%, respectively, p = 0.019). Systemic levels
of the adhesion marker ICAM correlated significantly with
the number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin.
Conclusions The study demonstrated that long-term
supplementation of polyphenol-rich CJ did not improve
peripheral endothelial function. However, the decrease in
the fraction of osteocalcin? EPCs suggests a potential
beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich CJ.

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