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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Animal

Displaying 1 - 10 of 26

Arabinoxyloglucan Oligosaccharides May Contribute to the Antiadhesive Properties of Porcine Urine after Cranberry Consumption.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Coleman CM; Auker KM; Killday KB; Azadi P; Black I; Ferreira D.
Journal: 
Journal of Natural Products. 82(3):589-605
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice is traditionally used for the prevention of urinary tract infections. Human urine produced after cranberry juice consumption can prevent Escherichia coli adhesion, but the antiadhesive urinary metabolites responsible have not been conclusively identified. Adult female sows were therefore fed spray-dried cranberry powder (5 g/kg/day), and urine was collected via catheter. Urine fractions were tested for antiadhesion activity using a human red blood cell (A+) anti-hemagglutination assay with uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli. Components were isolated from fractions of interest using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography followed by HPLC on normal and reversed-phase sorbents with evaporative light scattering detection. Active urine fractions were found to contain a complex series of oligosaccharides but not proanthocyanidins, and a single representative arabinoxyloglucan octasaccharide was isolated in sufficient quantity and purity for full structural characterization by chemical derivatization and NMR spectroscopic methods. Analogous cranberry material contained a similar complex series of arabinoxyloglucan oligosaccharides that exhibited antiadhesion properties in preliminary testing. These results indicate that oligosaccharides structurally related to those found in cranberry may contribute to the antiadhesion properties of urine after cranberry consumption.

Cranberry Standardized Capsules May Prevent Recurrences of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
John Dotis, Stella Stabouli, Antigoni Pavlaki, Fotios Papachristou and Nikoleta Printza
Journal: 
Clinics in Pediatrics 2018, Vol 1, Article 1007.
Abstract: 

We conducted a prospective study with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standardized cranberry capsules as prophylaxis in children with recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Therefore, children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, with history of recurrent UTIs, were recruited for the study and randomized to receive cranberry in a standardized dose of cranberry extract 125 mg (proanthocyanidins 7.2%), vitamin C 7.5 mg and vitamin E 2.5 mg or not. They were followed for 1 year during which compliance, side-effects and UTI episodes were recorded. Children on cranberry compared to control group presented significantly lower percentage of UTIs, fewer days/year on antibiotic treatment and lower percentage of initiation of antimicrobial prophylaxis (p<0.05) due to UTIs recurrences. In addition, in the subgroup of children with vesicoureteral reflux we observe a significant difference between the cranberry and the controls group in the number of UTIs (p<0.05). No side effects in cranberry group were reported. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Proteus spp. in this order were the predominant species isolated in both groups in the beginning and also in the end of the study. A trend of decrease of E. coli episodes in the cranberry group before and after the treatment was documented (83.3% vs. 66.6%), however, this was not significant (p=0.28). It seems that the use of standardized dose of cranberry seems to be a secure and effective treatment for children with recurrent episodes of UTIs

Benefits and Risks of Cranberries in Cystitis in Cats and Dogs.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Desfontis, J. C. Mallem, Y.
Journal: 
Point Veterinaire; 49(384 (Part 1)):21.
Abstract: 

This article describes the chemical composition, efficacy and risks of using cranberries for the treatment of cystitis in cats and dogs.

Effects of Unextruded and Extruded Cranberry Pomace on Selected Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bajerska J; Chmurzynska A; Mildner-Szkudlarz S; Drzymala-Czyz S; Gornas P; Waskiewicz A; Muzsik A; Podgorski T; Nowaczyk P; Wozniewicz M.
Journal: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 17(1):91-100
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.

Antiadhesive Activity and Metabolomics Analysis of Rat Urine after Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) Administration.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Peron G, Pellizzaro A, Brun P, Schievano E, Mammi S, Sut S, Castagliuolo I, Dall'Acqua S
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem. 65(28):5657-5667
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is used to treat noncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). A-type procyanidins (PAC-A) are considered the active constituents able to inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urinary epithelium. However, the role of PAC-A in UTIs is debated, because of their poor bioavailability, extensive metabolism, limited knowledge about urinary excretion, and contradictory clinical trials. The effects of 35-day cranberry supplementation (11 mg/kg PAC-A, 4 mg/kg PAC-B) were studied in healthy rats using a ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)-based metabolomics approach. Microbial PAC metabolites, such as valeric acid and valerolactone derivatives, were related to cranberry consumption. An increased urinary excretion of glucuronidated metabolites was also observed. In a further experiment, urine samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h after cranberry intake and their antiadhesive properties were tested against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The 8 h samples showed the highest activity. Changes in urinary composition were studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight (UPLC-QTOF), observing the presence of PAC metabolites. The PAC-A2 levels were measured in all collected samples, and the highest amounts, on the order of ng/mL, were found in the samples collected after 4 h. Results indicate that the antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic bacteria observed after cranberry consumption is ascribable to PAC-A metabolites rather than to a direct PAC-A effect, as the measured PAC-A levels in urine was lower than those reported as active in the literature.

Cranberry Extract Inhibits in Vitro Adhesion of F4 and F18+ Escherichia Coli to Pig Intestinal Epithelium and Reduces in Vivo Excretion of Pigs Orally Challenged with F18+ Verotoxigenic E. Coli.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Coddens, A. Loos, M. Vanrompay, D. Remon, J. P. Cox, E.
Journal: 
Veterinary Microbiology 202:64-71
Abstract: 

F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20 micro g or 100 micro g/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4+ E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18+ E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10 mg or 100 mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18+ E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1 g/kg or 10 g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10 g/kg) and drinking water (1 g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18+ E. coli.

Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Jensen HD; Struve C; Christensen SB; Krogfelt KA.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 8:542
Abstract: 

The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P < 0.01) of mice drinking fresh cranberry juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P < 0.01) bacterial populations in the bladder, as did the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice (P < 0.05). Quinic, malic, shikimic, and citric acid, the preponderant organic acids in cranberry juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P < 0.001), and so did the combination of malic plus citric acid (P < 0.01) and malic plus quinic acid (P < 0.05). The other tested combinations of the organic acids, and the acids administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

Effect of Cranberry Extract on the Frequency of Bacteriuria in Dogs with Acute Thoracolumbar Disk Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Olby NJ; Vaden SL; Williams K; Griffith EH; Harris T; Mariani CL; Munana KR; Early PJ; Platt SR; Boozer L; Giovanella C; Longshore R.
Journal: 
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 31(1):60-68
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial. Dogs with acute TL-IVDH were recruited 48 hours postoperatively and randomized to receive cranberry extract or placebo in a masked fashion. Urine cultures and neurological examinations were performed 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperatively. The number of dogs with bacteriuria (all bacterial species) and bacteriuria (E. coli) were primary and secondary outcome measures and were evaluated using chi-squared test. Urine antiadhesion activity (AAA) was measured in a subset (N = 47) and examined in a secondary analysis evaluating additional risk factors for bacteriuria. RESULTS: Bacteriuria was detected 17 times in 94 dogs (6 placebo, 11 cranberry, P = .12). There were 7 E. coli. positive cultures (1 placebo, 6 cranberry, P = .09). Dogs in both groups had positive urine AAA (14/21: placebo, 16/26: cranberry), and dogs with urine AAA had significantly fewer E. coli positive cultures (n = 1) than dogs without it (n = 4) (P = .047). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This clinical trial did not show a benefit of oral cranberry extract but had low power. Cranberry extract supplementation did not impact urine AAA, but a possible association between urine AAA and lower risk of E. coli bacteriuria was identified. Other doses could be investigated.

Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Chou HI, Chen KS, Wang HC,Lee WM
Journal: 
American Journal of Veterinary Research; 2016. 77(4):421-427.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. ANIMALS: 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). PROCEDURES: 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n=6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. RESULTS: None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E. coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

In vivo and in vitro antibacterial activities of cranberry extract against E. coli O157:H7 in urinary tract infected rats.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Ibrahim OMS, Sarhan SR, Hameed AA
Journal: 
Adv Anim Vet Sci 3(4):233-244
Abstract: 

The objective of this study was to determine the in-vitro and in-vivo activity of cranberry extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7. This strain of E. coli was the most common etiologic agent of urinary tract infections isolated from patients. Filter sterilized aqueous and methanol extract of cranberry was prepared and used in the present study. The aqueous extract of cranberry produced inhibition zone ranging from (10.8-23.8) mm against the tested bacteria. While the methanol extract produces larger zones of inhibition (12.1-24.2) mm against the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the methanol and aqueous extract was 0.35 and 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. In vivo study involved inducing UTI in rats and then treated with (200 mg/kg B.W) aqueous and methanol extract and compared with Gentamicin treatment at a dose of (2 mg/kg B.W) subcutaneously for 14 days. Methanol extract succeeded in treated UTI caused by Escherichia coli in the infected rats and prevented infection comparing with aqueous extract and Gentamicin. Food, water intake, body weight, pH and creatinine level returned to normal values after treatment with methanol extract of Cranberry fruit (200 mg/Kg.B.W) comparing with aqueous extract of Cranberry fruit and 2 mg/Kg.B.W. of Gentamicin. These parameters used in this current study as indicator for curing from infection. These findings indicated that cranberry extract was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent.

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