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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Animal

Displaying 1 - 10 of 29

Cranberries (Vacciniummacrocarpon aiton) in dog nutrition: influence on diet digestibility and palatability and in the course of urinary tract infections

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Olszewski, V. R.; Bastos, T. S.; Komarcheuski, A. S.; Oliveira, S. G.; Warth, J. F. G.; Felix, A. P
Journal: 
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; 2020. 72(5):1971-1979.
Abstract: 

The objective was to evaluate the effects of cranberry on blood and urinary parameters of dogs (experiment I), digestibility of nutrients (experiment II), palatability of diet (experiment III) and the influence of cranberry on E. coli UPEC-MRHA fimbriae in vitro (experiment IV). For experiment I and II, ten dogs were fed with diets containing 0% or 0.4% cranberry for 30 days. Experiment III compared the diets containing 0% and 0.4% cranberry using 16 adult dogs. There were no statistical differences (P>0.05) in the blood parameters evaluated. Dogs consuming cranberry presented lighter color and appearance of urine, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The diet containing cranberry showed higher digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, higher metabolizable energy (P<0.05) and reduced fecal sialic acid concentration (P<0.05) compared to the control diet. There was no influence of cranberry on the formation of fimbriae of E. coli UPEC-MRHA. There was a lower intake ratio of the diet containing cranberry (P<0.05). The inclusion of 0.4% cranberry increases the digestibility of nutrients and influences the color and appearance of urine of dogs. However, it reduces diet palatability and does not alter the adhesion of E. coli UPEC-MRHA in vitro..

Cranberry powder attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
An YeonJu; Lee JeongYoon; Kim YulHa; Jun WooJin; Lee YooHyun
Journal: 
Journal of Medicinal Food; 2020. 23(12):1296-1302
Abstract: 

Cranberry powder (CR) is reported to be effective against lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and recurrent urinary tract infections. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men older than 50 years is a common cause of LUTS. Here, we attempted to evaluate if CR is also effective for treating BPH using a BPH-induced rat model, which was orally administered CR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into the following six groups (n = 9): noncastration group; castration group; BPH group; BPH and cranberry for 8-week (CR8W) group; BPH and cranberry for 4-week (CR4W) group; and BPH and saw palmetto group (saw palmetto). Compared with the BPH group, the CR8W group showed a significant decrease in prostate weight (by 33%), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (by 18% in serum and 28% in prostate), 5-alpha reductase levels (18% reduction of type 1 and 35% of type 2), and histological changes. These results indicate that CR could attenuate BPH by inhibiting 5-alpha reductase and by reducing other biomarkers such as prostate weight and DHT levels. Thus, CR may be an effective candidate for the development of a functional food for BPH treatment.

Clinical-Diagnostic Criteria and Peculiarities of Treatment of Urocystitis in Cats

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Shulzhenko, N. M. Chernenko, O. M. Holubyev, O. V. Bordunova, O. G. Suslova, N. I.
Journal: 
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems; 2019. 10(1):26-31.
Abstract: 

The results of a study of cats with signs of urocystitis are presented. The general principles of diagnostics based on clinical, laboratory and additional research methods are established. Clinically acute urocystitis was manifested by disorders of urination - pollakiuria, dysuria, stranguria. Some of the animals showed an increase in body temperature, pain in the bladder and tightness of the walls of the abdominal cavity. According to the results of urine study, it was observed that 43.7% of the cats with urocystitis showed an increase in relative density of the urine, a change in urine pH towards higher alkaline levels, urine residue - erythrocytes, leukocytes and microorganisms were indicated. Impurities of salt and sand were found in 58.4% of the cats. In 31.4% of the cats, urocystitis was a complication of urolithiasis. Early diagnosis, especially differential diagnosis of acute and chronic, secondary urocystitis presents difficulties. Therefore, in cases of suspected inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract, a complex examination using ultrasound of the kidneys, bladder, prostate gland (in males) and the uterus (in females) is recommended. With therapeutic purpose, sick cats (two groups of 8 animals/group) were administered: anti-microbial agent (5% solution of Enrofloxacin), spasmolytic medicinal agent - RiabalReg.. Animals of the second group were additionally administered the drug Cystocure (Candioli Farmaceutici). According to the instructions, the plant basis of the powder Cystocure is presented by extracts of cranberries and orange peels. These substances provide the main properties of the drug - help in resisting the bacterial colonization of the lower urinary tract and change in urine pH to the acid side. The applied therapy positively influenced the clinical condition of the cats. Their general health was improved, painful sensations during the act of urination disappeared, the quantity and frequency of diuresis normalized. On the seventh day of treatment, according to the results of the study, the urine became transparent, no microorganisms were detected. In cats of the second group, which additionally used the drug Cystocure, the amount of salts and sand decreased significantly, the pH of the urine did not exceed the recommended value of 6.4, in contrast to animals of the first group.

Arabinoxyloglucan Oligosaccharides May Contribute to the Antiadhesive Properties of Porcine Urine after Cranberry Consumption.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Coleman CM; Auker KM; Killday KB; Azadi P; Black I; Ferreira D.
Journal: 
Journal of Natural Products. 82(3):589-605
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice is traditionally used for the prevention of urinary tract infections. Human urine produced after cranberry juice consumption can prevent Escherichia coli adhesion, but the antiadhesive urinary metabolites responsible have not been conclusively identified. Adult female sows were therefore fed spray-dried cranberry powder (5 g/kg/day), and urine was collected via catheter. Urine fractions were tested for antiadhesion activity using a human red blood cell (A+) anti-hemagglutination assay with uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli. Components were isolated from fractions of interest using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography followed by HPLC on normal and reversed-phase sorbents with evaporative light scattering detection. Active urine fractions were found to contain a complex series of oligosaccharides but not proanthocyanidins, and a single representative arabinoxyloglucan octasaccharide was isolated in sufficient quantity and purity for full structural characterization by chemical derivatization and NMR spectroscopic methods. Analogous cranberry material contained a similar complex series of arabinoxyloglucan oligosaccharides that exhibited antiadhesion properties in preliminary testing. These results indicate that oligosaccharides structurally related to those found in cranberry may contribute to the antiadhesion properties of urine after cranberry consumption.

Cranberry Standardized Capsules May Prevent Recurrences of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
John Dotis, Stella Stabouli, Antigoni Pavlaki, Fotios Papachristou and Nikoleta Printza
Journal: 
Clinics in Pediatrics 2018, Vol 1, Article 1007.
Abstract: 

We conducted a prospective study with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standardized cranberry capsules as prophylaxis in children with recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Therefore, children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, with history of recurrent UTIs, were recruited for the study and randomized to receive cranberry in a standardized dose of cranberry extract 125 mg (proanthocyanidins 7.2%), vitamin C 7.5 mg and vitamin E 2.5 mg or not. They were followed for 1 year during which compliance, side-effects and UTI episodes were recorded. Children on cranberry compared to control group presented significantly lower percentage of UTIs, fewer days/year on antibiotic treatment and lower percentage of initiation of antimicrobial prophylaxis (p<0.05) due to UTIs recurrences. In addition, in the subgroup of children with vesicoureteral reflux we observe a significant difference between the cranberry and the controls group in the number of UTIs (p<0.05). No side effects in cranberry group were reported. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Proteus spp. in this order were the predominant species isolated in both groups in the beginning and also in the end of the study. A trend of decrease of E. coli episodes in the cranberry group before and after the treatment was documented (83.3% vs. 66.6%), however, this was not significant (p=0.28). It seems that the use of standardized dose of cranberry seems to be a secure and effective treatment for children with recurrent episodes of UTIs

Benefits and Risks of Cranberries in Cystitis in Cats and Dogs.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Desfontis, J. C. Mallem, Y.
Journal: 
Point Veterinaire; 49(384 (Part 1)):21.
Abstract: 

This article describes the chemical composition, efficacy and risks of using cranberries for the treatment of cystitis in cats and dogs.

Effects of Unextruded and Extruded Cranberry Pomace on Selected Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bajerska J; Chmurzynska A; Mildner-Szkudlarz S; Drzymala-Czyz S; Gornas P; Waskiewicz A; Muzsik A; Podgorski T; Nowaczyk P; Wozniewicz M.
Journal: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 17(1):91-100
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.

Antiadhesive Activity and Metabolomics Analysis of Rat Urine after Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) Administration.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Peron G, Pellizzaro A, Brun P, Schievano E, Mammi S, Sut S, Castagliuolo I, Dall'Acqua S
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem. 65(28):5657-5667
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is used to treat noncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). A-type procyanidins (PAC-A) are considered the active constituents able to inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urinary epithelium. However, the role of PAC-A in UTIs is debated, because of their poor bioavailability, extensive metabolism, limited knowledge about urinary excretion, and contradictory clinical trials. The effects of 35-day cranberry supplementation (11 mg/kg PAC-A, 4 mg/kg PAC-B) were studied in healthy rats using a ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)-based metabolomics approach. Microbial PAC metabolites, such as valeric acid and valerolactone derivatives, were related to cranberry consumption. An increased urinary excretion of glucuronidated metabolites was also observed. In a further experiment, urine samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h after cranberry intake and their antiadhesive properties were tested against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The 8 h samples showed the highest activity. Changes in urinary composition were studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight (UPLC-QTOF), observing the presence of PAC metabolites. The PAC-A2 levels were measured in all collected samples, and the highest amounts, on the order of ng/mL, were found in the samples collected after 4 h. Results indicate that the antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic bacteria observed after cranberry consumption is ascribable to PAC-A metabolites rather than to a direct PAC-A effect, as the measured PAC-A levels in urine was lower than those reported as active in the literature.

Cranberry Extract Inhibits in Vitro Adhesion of F4 and F18+ Escherichia Coli to Pig Intestinal Epithelium and Reduces in Vivo Excretion of Pigs Orally Challenged with F18+ Verotoxigenic E. Coli.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Coddens, A. Loos, M. Vanrompay, D. Remon, J. P. Cox, E.
Journal: 
Veterinary Microbiology 202:64-71
Abstract: 

F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20 micro g or 100 micro g/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4+ E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18+ E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10 mg or 100 mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18+ E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1 g/kg or 10 g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10 g/kg) and drinking water (1 g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18+ E. coli.

Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Jensen HD; Struve C; Christensen SB; Krogfelt KA.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 8:542
Abstract: 

The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P < 0.01) of mice drinking fresh cranberry juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P < 0.01) bacterial populations in the bladder, as did the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice (P < 0.05). Quinic, malic, shikimic, and citric acid, the preponderant organic acids in cranberry juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P < 0.001), and so did the combination of malic plus citric acid (P < 0.01) and malic plus quinic acid (P < 0.05). The other tested combinations of the organic acids, and the acids administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

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