Back to top

Search

Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Review

Displaying 21 - 30 of 42

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins: Natural Weapons against Periodontal Diseases

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Feghali K, Feldman M, La VD, Santos J, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem Nov 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) is known to have a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. Proanthocyanidins (PACs), the most abundant flavonoids extracted from red cranberry fruits, have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antiadhesion, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent in vitro studies have shown that cranberry PACs may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and management of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affecting tooth-supporting tissues. After presenting an overview of cranberry phytochemicals and their potential for human health benefits, this review will focus on the effects of cranberry PACs on connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction, as well as their potential for controlling periodontal diseases. Possible mechanisms of action of cranberry PACs include the inhibition of (i) bacterial and host-derived proteolytic enzymes, (ii) host inflammatory response, and (iii) osteoclast differentiation and activity. Given that cranberry PACs have shown interesting properties in in vitro studies, clinical trials are warranted to better evaluate the potential of these molecules for controlling periodontal diseases.

Cranberry in children: prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections and review of the literature

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Dessi A, Atzei A, Fanos V
Journal: 
Rev Bras Farmacogn 21(5):807-813
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. In 30-50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), neurogenic bladder (NB), previous cystitis or pyelonephritis and malformative uropathies. To reduce the likelihood of UTI, antibiotic prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of collateral effects and resistant organisms in the host. Such reasons have induced scientists to search for alternative modalities of UTI prevention and have contributed to determining the increasing desire for "naturalness" of the population and preventing excessive medication. The use of cranberry fulfils these needs by potentially replacing or enhancing traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cranberry in preventing UTI in pediatric populations. We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Internet. Cranberry in patients with previous UTI was evaluated in three studies, cranberry in patients with VUR in three studies and four studies analyzed the efficacy of cranberry in children with NB. In seven of nine studies cranberry had a significant effect in preventing UTI.

Cranberry juice and urinary-tract health: science supports folklore

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Henig YS, Leahy MM
Journal: 
Nutrition 16(7-8):684-7
Abstract: 

In the 20th century, the health benefit most often attributed to the cranberry is its role in maintaining urinary-tract health. A 1998 study by the International Food Information Council (personal communication) indicated that 47% of consumers surveyed were aware of a link between cranberry juice and urinary-tract health.

Recurrent cystitis in non-pregnant women

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Sen A
Journal: 
Clin Evid 07:801
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the lower urinary tract which causes pain when passing urine, and causes urgency, haematuria, and suprapubic pain not associated with passing urine. Recurrent cystitis is usually defined as three episodes of urinary tract infection in the previous 12 months, or two episodes in the previous 6 months. METHODS AND

OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: Which interventions prevent further recurrence of cystitis in women experiencing at least two infections per year? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS: We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, cefaclor, or a quinolone or cephalexin); continuous prophylaxis with methenamine hippurate; cranberry juice and cranberry products; oestrogen (topical) in postmenopausal women; passing urine after intercourse; postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis; single-dose self-administered antibiotic.

Cranberry juice and urinary tract infections: what is the evidence?

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Lowe FC, Fagelman E
Journal: 
Urology 57(3):407-13
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: It is well “known” by the general lay public that cranberry juice is helpful in treating and preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, the evidence for this assumption has never been critically reviewed in urologic reports or elsewhere. The evidence for the two proposed mechanisms of action of cranberry juice, urinary acidification and inhibition of bacterial adherence, are critically analyzed.

Safety and efficacy of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, Mills E, Koren G
Journal: 
Can J Clin Pharmacol 15(1):e80-6
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbs used during pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for herbs commonly used during pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature for evidence on the use, safety and pharmacology of cranberry, focusing on issues pertaining to pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: We searched 7 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. RESULTS: There is no direct evidence of safety or harm to the mother or fetus as a result of consuming cranberry during pregnancy. Indirectly, there is good scientific evidence that cranberry may be of minimal risk, where a survey of 400 pregnant women did not uncover any adverse events when cranberry was regularly consumed. In lactation, the safety or harm of cranberry is unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Women experience urinary tract infections with greater frequency during pregnancy. Given the evidence to support the use of cranberry for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and its safety profile, cranberry supplementation as fruit or fruit juice may be a valuable therapeutic choice in the treatment of UTIs during pregnancy.

Urinary tract infections: what's new

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Krieger JN
Journal: 
J Urol 168(6):2351-8
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: This review provides practicing urologists with important basic information about urinary tract infections (UTIs) that can be applied to everyday clinical problems.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review is presented of provocative and controversial concepts in the current literature.

RESULTS: Bacterial virulence mechanisms are critical for overcoming the normal host defenses. Increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens has led to reconsideration of traditional treatment recommendations in many areas. For effective patient management the first issue is to define complicating urological factors. Managing complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in urology, is determined by clinical experience to define the pertinent anatomy and to determine the optimal interventions. New clinical data are summarized on UTIs in long-term care patients, behavioral risks for UTI in healthy women and anatomical differences associated with an increased risk for UTI. The rationale is presented for UTI prophylaxis using cranberry juice, immunization and bacterial interference. Current treatment trends for UTI include empiric therapy (without urine culture and sensitivity testing), short-course therapy, patient-administered (self-start) therapy and outpatient therapy for uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for treating patients with UTIs have changed based on basic science and clinical experience.

A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Jepson RG, Craig JC
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):738-45
Abstract: 

In this review we assess the effectiveness of cranberry and blueberry products in preventing symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Selection criteria were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cranberry or blueberry juice/products for the prevention of symptomatic UTIs. A comprehensive search was undertaken in November 2006 whereupon two reviewers independently assessed and extracted data. Quality was assessed using Cochrane criteria. Relative risks (RR) were calculated where appropriate; otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. No relevant trials of blueberry products were identified. Nine trials of cranberry products met the inclusion criteria. In four good quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of symptomatic UTIs in 12 months (overall RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46-0.90) compared with placebo/control. Five trials were not included in the meta-analyses due to the lack of appropriate data. However, only one reported a significant result. Side effects were common, and losses to followup/withdrawals in several of the trials were high (> 40%). There is some evidence from four good quality RCTs that cranberry juice may decrease the number of symptomatic UTIs over a 12-month period, particularly in women with recurrent UTIs. It is uncertain whether it is effective in other susceptible groups.

Bioactive compounds in cranberries and their role in prevention of urinary tract infections.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Howell AB
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):732-7
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) ingestion has long been associated with prevention of urinary tract infections. The beneficial mechanism was historically thought to be due to the fruit acids causing a bacteriostatic effect in the urine. However, recently, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated from cranberry which exhibit bacterial antiadhesion activity against both antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli bacteria. The link between cranberry ingestion and maintenance of urinary tract health as well as the structural diversity, pharmacokinetics, quantification, and bacterial antiadhesion bioactivity of the A-linked cranberry PACs are reviewed.

Cranberry for prevention of urinary tract infections

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Lynch DM
Journal: 
Am Fam Physician 70(11):2175-7
Abstract: 

Traditionally, cranberry has been used for the treatment and prophylaxis of urinary tract infections. Research suggests that its mechanism of action is preventing bacterial adherence to host cell surface membranes. Systematic reviews have concluded that no reliable evidence supports the use of cranberry in the treatment or prophylaxis of urinary tract infections; however, more recent, randomized controlled trials demonstrate evidence of cranberry's utility in urinary tract infection prophylaxis. Supporting studies in humans are lacking for other clinical uses of cranberry. Cranberry is a safe, well-tolerated herbal supplement that does not have significant drug interactions.

Pages