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Review


Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides

Posted: August 15, 2017
Authors: Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides
Journal: Nutrients 9(2)

Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens or teratogens. Genotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases including hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, chronic inflammation and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in a variety of fruits. In this review (Part 1), we present an overview of research conducted on some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, pomegranate, guava, pineapple, and mango) which are frequentl consumed by humans, as well as the analysis of some phytochemicals extracted from fruits and yeasts which have demonstrated antigenotoxic capacity in various tests, including the Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and comet assay.


Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Weh KM, Clarke J, Kresty LA
Journal: Antioxidants 5(3):27

Abstract: Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy in high risk cohorts should be considered.


Cranberry as Promising Natural Source of Potential Anticancer Agents: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Katsargyris A, Tampaki EC, Giaginis C, Theocharis S
Journal: Anticancer Agents Med Chem [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary modification can lower the risk for several cancer types' development. Cranberry in particular, has been shown to have anti-oxidative, -inflammatory and -proliferative properties in vitro. To present the latest knowledge regarding the role of cranberry extracts against human cancer several types. A review of the literature documenting both in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of whole cranberry and/or its extracts is conducted; Current data provide evidence for several anti-cancer properties of either whole cranberry and/or its extracts. The discovery of the specific cranberry components and the appropriate concentrations that exert such beneficial effects along with verification of the preliminary in vitro results in in vivo settings could potentially lead to the invention of novel safer and efficient anti-cancer therapeutic agents.


Cranberries: ripe for more cancer research?

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Neto CC
Journal: J Sci Food Agric 91: 13, 2303-2307

Abstract: Berries have been recognized as a functional food with potential to protect against a variety of health conditions, including some cancers. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production and consumption have grown in recent years, warranting further evaluation of potential health benefits. Extracts and isolated constituents from cranberry fruit inhibit growth and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, and recent data from animal studies lend further support to cranberry's reputation as a cancer fighter. Several likely mechanisms of action for cranberry against prostate and other cancers have been identified, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of events linked to cellular invasion and migration. This article attempts to put into perspective what is known about cranberry's potential chemopreventive properties, what is yet to be determined, and some factors to consider as research moves forward.


Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update

Posted: November 9, 2010
Authors: Neto CC, Amoroso JW and Liberty AM
Journal: Mol Nutr Food Res 52(Suppl 1):S18-27

Abstract: Studies employing mainly in vitro tumor models show that extracts and compounds isolated from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit the growth and proliferation of several types of tumor including breast, colon, prostate, and lung. Proanthocyanidin oligomers, flavonol and anthocyanin glycosides and triterpenoids are all likely contributors to the observed anticancer properties and may act in a complementary fashion to limit carcinogenesis. Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with prostate tumor metastasis, and anti-inflammatory activities including inhibition of cyclooxygenases. A review of recent studies suggests a potential role for cranberry as a dietary chemopreventive and provides direction for future research.


Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies

Posted: November 9, 2010
Authors: Neto CC
Journal: J Nutr 137(1 Suppl):186S-193S

Abstract: This article reviews the existing research on the anticancer properties of cranberry fruit and key phytochemicals that are likely contributors to chemoprevention. Results from in vitro studies using a variety of tumor models show that polyphenolic extracts from Vaccinium macrocarpon inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, lung, and other tumors, as do flavonols, proanthocyanidin oligomers, and triterpenoids isolated from the fruit. The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits. Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with prostate tumor metastasis, and antiinflammatory activities including inhibition of cyclooxygenases. These findings suggest a potential role for cranberry as a dietary chemopreventive and provide direction for future research.