Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are mostly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cranberry-based products have shown preventive effects against UTI, and this has been partially attributed to their A-type proanthocyanidin content. However, recent evidence reports phenyl- gamma -valerolactones as the most relevant urinary metabolites of cranberry procyanidins, and candidates these compounds as plausible responsible for the protective effects of cranberries against UTI. This paper studied the inhibition of the adherence of UPEC ATCCReg. 53503TM to T24 bladder epithelial cells by physiological concentrations of differently sulphated dihydroxyphenyl- gamma -valerolactones. Moreover, the transformations of these molecules in the cell media were evaluated by UHPLC-MSn. All dihydroxyphenyl- gamma -valerolactone derivatives showed anti-adhesive activity at 100 micro M, while 5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)- gamma -valerolactone-4-O-sulphate also showed neuro-protective effects at 50 micro M. Some compounds underwent extensive metabolism during cell incubation, mainly deconjugation of sulphate moieties and opening of the lactone ring. These results shed light on the flavan-3-ol metabolites behind the prophylactic effect of cranberries against UTI.
Abstract: Commensal bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and catabolize glycans that are impervious to host digestion. Accordingly, Bifidobacterium longum typically secrete acetate and lactate as fermentative endproducts. This study tested the hypothesis that B. longum utilize cranberry-derived xyloglucans in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, the B. longum strain that efficiently utilizes cranberry xyloglucans secrete 2.0-2.5 moles acetate:lactate. The 1.5 ratio theoretical yield obtained in hexose fermentations shifts during xyloglucan metabolism. Accordingly, this metabolic shift is characterized by increased acetate and formate production at the expense of lactate. alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, an arabinan endo-1,5-alpha-L-arabinosidase, and a beta-xylosidase with a carbohydrate substrate-binding protein and carbohydrate ABC transporter membrane proteins are upregulated (> 2-fold change), which suggests carbon flux through this catabolic pathway. Finally, syntrophic interactions occurred with strains that utilize carbohydrate products derived from initial degradation from a heterologous bacterium.IMPORTANCE This is a study of bacterial metabolism of complex cranberry carbohydrates termed xyloglucans that are likely not digested prior to reaching the colon. This is significant as bifidobacteria interact with this dietary compound to potentially impact human host health through energy and metabolite production by bacterial utilization of these substrates. Specific bacterial strains utilize cranberry xyloglucans as a nutritive source indicating unknown mechanisms that are not universal in bifidobacteria. In addition, xyloglucan metabolism proceeds using an alternative pathway could lead to further research to investigate mechanisms underlying this interaction. Finally, we observed cross-feeding between bacteria in which one strain degrades the cranberry xyloglucan to make it available to a second strain. Similar nutritive strategies are known to occur within the gut. In aggregate, this study may lead to novel foods or supplements to impact human health through rational manipulations of their microbiome.
Abstract: An extract prepared from cranberry juice by dialysis known as nondialyzable material (NDM) has been shown previously to possess anti-adhesion activity toward microbial species including oral bacteria, uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. Bioassay-guided fractionation of cranberry NDM was therefore undertaken to identify the anti-adhesive constituents. An aqueous acetone-soluble fraction (NDMac) obtained from Sephadex LH-20 inhibited adhesion-linked activities by oral bacteria, including co-aggregation of oral bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum with Streptococcus sanguinis or Porphyromonas gingivalis, and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Analysis of NDMac and subsequent subfractions by MALDI-TOF MS and 1H NMR revealed the presence of A-type proanthocyanidin oligomers (PACs) of 3-6 degrees of polymerization composed of (epi)catechin units, with some (epi)gallocatechin and anthocyanin units also present, as well as quercetin derivatives. Subfractions containing putative xyloglucans in addition to the mixed polyphenols also inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans (MIC = 125-250 mug mL-1). These studies suggest that the anti-adhesion activities of cranberry NDM on oral bacteria may arise from a combination of mixed polyphenol and non-polyphenol constituents.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate is considered as the gold standard among various anti-plaque agents. However, many local side effects have been reported on its long term use. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, including flavonoids and proanthrocyanidins. Insufficient evidences are available to support antimicrobial property of Cranberry extract mouthwash in context to red, orange and green complexes of periodontal pathogens and even comparison of same with clinically used and accepted 0.2% Chlorhexidine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sterilised nutrient agar plates were inoculated with suspensions of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and A. actinomycetemcomitans (overnight cultures grown at 37° on nutrient agar). The strains were allowed to grow in strict anaerobic condition. 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml Cranberry extract, 0.2% Chlorhexidine and distilled water were added into wells. Plates were then again incubated at 37° for 24 hours. Diameter of zones of inhibition of all the plates was measured using digital vernier callipers. The mean score of zones of inhibition was calculated. RESULTS: Results of the study showed that all four concentrations of Cranberry extract showed comparatively less significant antimicrobial property against the microorganisms, compared to 0.2% Chlorhexidine. CONCLUSION: This study showed that 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml Cranberry extract does not have significant antimicrobial efficacy against periodontopathogens, compared to that of 0.2% Chlorhexidine.
Abstract: In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes on macrophage activation and antigen presentation. We isolated PAC from cranberry and complexed the isolated PAC with BSA and HEL. The properties of the PAC-protein complexes were studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel electrophoresis and zeta-potential. The effects of PAC-BSA complexes on macrophage activation were studied in RAW 264.7 macrophage like cells after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fluorescent microscopy was used to study endocytosis of PAC-BSA complexes. The effects of PAC complexes on macrophage antigen presentation was studied in an in vitro model of HEL antigen presentation by mouse peritoneal mononuclear cells to a T-cell hybridoma. Mass spectra of PAC complexes with BSA and HEL differed from spectra of the proteins alone by the presence of broad shoulders on the singly and doubly charged protein peaks. Complexation with PAC altered the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in native agarose gel and the electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) values. These results indicate that the PAC-protein complexes are stable and alter protein structure without precipitating the protein. Fluorescent microscopy showed that RAW 264.7 macrophages endocytosed BSA and PAC-BSA complexes in discrete vesicles that surrounded the nucleus. Macrophages treated with increasing amounts of PAC-BSA complexes had significantly reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to controls. PAC-HEL complexes modulated antigen uptake, processing and presentation in murine peritoneal macrophages. After 4 h of pre-incubation, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected in the co-cultures treated with HEL alone, whereas a PAC-HEL complex had already reached maximum IL-2 expression. Cranberry PAC may increase rate of endocytose of HEL and subsequent expression of IL-2 by the T-cell hybridomas. These results suggest that PAC-protein complexes modulate aspects of innate and acquired immune responses in macrophages.
Abstract: Cranberry contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive molecules that have health-promoting properties. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if cranberry extracts (CEs) contain phytochemicals that exert anti-inflammatory effects. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with two CEs (CE and 90MX) and subsequently challenged with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) expression was decreased in the CE-treated cells, indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. Gene expression microarrays identified several immune-related genes that were responsive to CEs including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 and 3 (IFIT 1 and 3), macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) and colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). In addition, in the CE-treated cells, metallothionein 1F and other metal-responsive genes were induced. Taken together, this data indicates that CEs contain bioactive components that have anti-inflammatory effects and may protect cells from oxidative damage.
Abstract: The present work aims to investigate the efficacy of thermoreversible gel of cranberry juice concentrate (CJC) as local drug delivery for the treatment of periodontitis. CJC was initially tested for its antimicrobial activities like MIC, MBC, antiadhesion, antibiofilm and time kill assay against the panel of organisms (S. mutans (SM), E. faecalis (EF), A. actinomycetemcomitans (AA), P. gingivalis (PG), T. forsythia (TF)) responsible for periapical and periodontal infections. Antimicrobial activity of CJC showed MIC value of 50mg/ml and MBC value of 100mg/ml with desirable antiadhesion (83-90%) and antibiofilm activity (70-85%). CJC was evaluated for its biocompatibility using periodontal fibroblasts by cell based MTT assay and found to be nontoxic. Influence of CJC on periodontopathogen PG derived virulence factors (fimA and kgp) was studied using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique wherein down regulation of selected genes demonstrated inhibitory effect against PG virulence factors. Thermoreversible gel of CJC was formulated by cold method using poloxamer 407 as thermosensitive polymer and carbopol 934 as mucoadhesive polymer and evaluated for its gelation temperature, viscosity, gel strength and mucoadhesive strength. Comparison of optimized thermoreversible gel of CJC (500mg/ml) with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate gel (0.2%) using agar well diffusion demonstrated equal zone of inhibition against SM, EF, AA, PG & TF. Hence the formulated thermoreversible gel of CJC could serve as a novel herbal alternative to currently available periodontal treatment modalities.
Abstract: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by <=10%. Similarly, EGCG (30 micro g/ml) and C-40 (25 micro g/ml), respectively, reduced RTV titers by 3 and 13%. However, RTV titers were reduced by 32% (p < .05) with both flavonoids used in combination. RTV was not recognized in host cells by electron microscopy 24-h post-inoculation. NMR and HPLC/MS findings revealed significant structural and potential changes in molecular weight of the flavonoids in complex.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTS: All the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L-1 ). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (~5000 mg Trolox equivalents L-1 ). Other samples had lower total polyphenols content and total antioxidant capacity. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSION: Chokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them to further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular disease prophylaxis
Abstract: CONTEXT:Cranberry has numerous biological activities, including antioxidation, anticancer, cardioprotection, as well as treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), attributed to abundant phenolic contents.OBJECTIVE:The current study focused on the effect of cranberry juice (CJ) on blue light exposed human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells which mimic age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MATERIALS AND METHODS:Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis, as well as total antioxidant capacity and scavenging activity of cranberry ethyl acetate extract and different CJ fractions (condensed tannins containing fraction), were evaluated. In cell line model, ARPE-19 were irradiated with blue light at 450 nm wavelength for 10 h (mimic AMD) and treated with different fractions of CJ extract at different doses (5-50 μg/mL) by assessing the cell viability or proliferation rate using MTT assay (repairing efficacy).RESULTS:Phytochemical and HPLC analysis reveals the presence of several phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, quercetin) in ethyl acetate extract and different fractions of CJ. However, the condensed tannin containing fraction of ethyl acetate extract of CJ displayed the greater (p < 0.05) scavenging activity especially at the dose of 1 mg/mL. Similarly, the condensed tannin containing fraction at 50 μg/mL presented better (p < 0.05) repairing ability (increased cell viability). Furthermore, the oligomeric condensed tannin containing fraction display the best (p < 0.05) repairing efficiency at 50 μg/mL.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:In conclusion, this study distinctly proved that condensed tannin containing fraction of CJ probably exhibits better free radicals scavenging activity and thereby effectively protected the ARPE-19 cells and thus, hampers the progress of AMD.
Abstract: Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated disorder. Polyphenols, which are known to interact with certain proteins, could be used to reduce allergic reactions. This study screened several polyphenol sources for their ability to interact with gliadins, mask epitopes, and affect basophil degranulation. Polyphenol extracts from artichoke leaves, cranberries, apples, and green tea leaves were examined. Of these extracts, the first three formed insoluble complexes with gliadins. Only the cranberry and apple extracts masked epitopes in dot blot assays using anti-gliadin IgG and IgE antibodies from patients with wheat allergies. The cranberry and artichoke extracts limited cellular degranulation by reducing mouse anti-gliadin IgE recognition. In conclusion, the cranberry extract is the most effective polyphenol source at reducing the immunogenicity and allergenicity of wheat gliadins.
Abstract: Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation ( beta -hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p<0.05 (38% and 31% decrease, respectively). Sensitized RBL-2H3 cells challenged with antigen and ionomycin in the presence of protein-cranberry and blueberry polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in histamine and beta -hexosaminidase release (histamine: 65.5% and 65.8% decrease; beta -hexosaminidase: 60.7% and 45.4% decrease, respectively). The modification of peanut proteins with cranberry or blueberry polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.
Abstract: Background: Cranberry pomace (CP), an underutilized by-product from juice processing, contains a wide range of biologically active compounds that can be recovered and used in a variety of applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Methods: In this study, analytical chemical techniques such as solvent extractions and characterization of extracts in respect with their phenolic content were performed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and spectrophotometry. Crude CP extract and its phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins–rich fractions were then evaluated for their anti-oxidant capacity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and anti-proliferation activity against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Results: On a dry weight basis, the different CP fractions contained seven major anthocyanins (0.1-125 mg/g), six major phenolic acids (0.8-31 mg/g), seven flavonols (1-126 mg/g) and five flavan-3-ols (0.1-12 mg/g). Fractions rich in flavonols exhibited the most potent antioxidant capacities with ferric ion reducing antioxidant power values of 1.8-1.9 mmole/g and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging IC50 values of 15.1-15.2 mg/L respectively. On the other hand, fractions rich in phenolic acids and flavan-3-ol monomers demonstrated the most potent anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=6.1-6.2 mg/L) and anti-proliferative activity (IC50=7.8-15.8 mg/L). Generally, all the fractions exhibited a dose-response relationship in the selected biological activity assays.Conclusion: This study suggests an effective utilization of CP to obtain biologically active fractions with potential to be used in functional foods and nutraceuticals designed for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.
Abstract: Cranberries and probiotics are individually considered as functional foods. This study evaluated the potential synergy between bioactive proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) derived from cranberries and probiotics on reducing the invasiveness of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in a cell culture model. ExPEC can be a component of the gut microbiota in healthy individuals, and reducing the invasiveness of ExPEC is a potential means to lessen the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections (UTI), the most common bacterial infections in women. c-PAC (>92% A-type) concentrations greater than 36 micro g c-PAC/mL significantly (p<0.05) reduced ExPEC invasion, and was not inhibited by the presence of probiotics. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the mechanism by which c-PAC prevent ExPEC invasion is by cross-linking surface virulence factors. A probiotic blend also significantly reduced invasion, albeit via a different mechanism. This study demonstrated the potential benefit of combining functional A-type c-PAC components in cranberry foods with probiotics.
Abstract: Cranberry products have long been used to treat urinary tract infections. It is believed that the A-type proanthocyanidins in cranberries contribute to this function. Peanut is one of the other, few food sources that primarily contain A-type proanthocyanidins. The skin on the outside of the peanut kernels (testa), which is treated as an agriculture waste product, contains high levels of A-type proanthocyanidins. In this study, an HPLC diol column separation method and MALDI-TOF MS were used to characterize and compare the proanthocyanidin compositions of peanut skins and cranberries. MALDI-TOF MS in linear mode was able to detect a group of proanthocyanidins with DP (degree of polymerization) 10 in peanut skin extract, but was only able to detect DP 8 in cranberry extract.The reflectron mode showed clusters of clear narrow peaks at DP 7 in peanut skin extract, while the highest DP resolved for cranberry extract was only 3 in reflectron mode. This might be due to the low response intensity of the cranberry samples with the current cleanup method and the matrix. Based on the resolved peaks in reflectron mode, peanut skins and cranberries have similar proanthocyanidins composition; they contain both A-type and B-type proanthocyanidins, with the A-type being predominant. This result may inspire future studies on the comparison of biological functions between peanut skins and cranberries and further comparison of their polymeric proanthocyanidin composition.
Abstract: Anthocyanins are a group of widespread natural phenolic compounds in vegetables and fruits. The anthocyanins have a wide range of applications due to the antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-o-glucoside, cyanidin-3-o-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-o-glucoside and malvidin-3-o-glucoside) in cherry and cranberry were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS). The anthocyanins were separated using gradient elution and a reserved-phase analytical column before identification by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry. A high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry method was optimized for the determination of anthocyanins in cherry and cranberry. Furthermore, in this study, we investigated extraction conditions of fruit samples as well as determination of optimum HPLC–ESI–MS conditions. This study is novel in terms of simultaneously examining both optimization of HPLC parameters and extraction conditions. Obtained optimum conditions were used for the determination as the quantitative and qualitative analysis of anthocyanins in cherry and cranberry. The content of anthocyanins on the basis of wet weight in cherry and cranberry samples was determined for delphinidin-3-o-glucoside <d.l. (detection limit) and <d.l., for cyanidin-3-o-glucoside varied from 3.5 ± 0.4 to 8.3 ± 1.1 mg kg−1 (average 5.8 ± 0.8 mg kg−1) and 9.8 ± 1.4 to 18 ± 3.0 mg kg−1 (average 13.2 ± 1.8 mg kg−1), for pelargonidin-3-o-glucoside <d.l. and varied from 136 ± 19 to 233 ± 35 mg kg−1 (average 185.3 ± 28 mg kg−1), for malvidin-3-o-glucoside <d.l. and <d.l., respectively.
Abstract: Drinking of cranberry fruit juice and application of commercial preparations containing the cranberry extracts are recommended in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially in women with recurrent UTIs. Many studies focus on the activity of cranberries against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. However, the knowledge of the cranberry effect on Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish the activity of commercial concentrated cranberry extract on the growth, virulence factors and biofilm formation of E. faecalis strains isolated from urine. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cranberry extract were determined by the broth microdilution method. Disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. The impact of cranberry extract on bacterial survival, hydrophobicity, synthesis of lipase, lecithinase, DNase, hemolysin, gelatinase and biofilm mass was determined. Results show that cranberry extract inhibits the growth, enzymatic activities of bacteria and limits biofilm formation. The antibacterial activities of the studied cranberry extract confirm that it could be successfully used in prevention of UTIs caused by E. faecalis.
Abstract: Ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) was applied to the analysis and authentication of fruit-based products and pharmaceutical preparations. Two sub-2 micro m C18 reversed-phase columns, Syncronis (100x2.1 mm, 1.7 micro m) and Hypersil Gold (50x2.1 mm, 1.9 micro m), were proposed under gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol mobile phases for the determination of 29 polyphenols, allowing us to obtain polyphenolic profiles in less than 13.5 and 23.5 min, respectively. Several atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources (H-ESI, APCI, and APPI) were compared. For dopant-assisted APPI, four organic solvents, toluene, acetone, chlorobenzene and anisole, were evaluated as dopants. Both H-ESI and acetone-assisted APPI were selected as the best ionization sources for the analysis of targeted polyphenols. Acceptable sensitivity (LOD values down to 0.5 micro g kg-1 in the best of cases), linearity (r2 higher than 0.995) and good precision (RSD values lower than 15.1%) and trueness (relative errors lower than 10.2%) were obtained using both UHPLC-API-MS/MS methods. A simple extraction procedure, consisting of sample sonication with acetone/water/hydrochloric acid (70:29.9:0.1 v/v/v) and centrifugation, was used. The proposed UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS methods with both C18 reversed-phase columns were then applied to the analysis of 32 grape-based and cranberry-based natural products and pharmaceutical preparations. Polyphenolic profile data were then analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to extract information on the most significant data contributing to the classification of natural extracts according to the type of fruit.
Abstract: Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, application of single QSI may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. In such conditions, combination of QSIs can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. In the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fraction (PAF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at their sub-MICs using standard methods followed by analysis of their mode of action on QS using TLC and molecular docking. There was significant improvement in action of CIP when it was combined with PAF in reducing the QS controlled virulence factors (p<0.05), motilities and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. TLC profiles of QS signals [(Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS))] indicated that CIP in combination with PAF, besides showing inhibitory action on production of AHLs, also modulated production and inactivation of PQS. Docking scores also supported the observation. We therefore hypothesize that PAF-CIP combination, having improved anti-virulence property; can be exploited as a potent drug pairing against P. aeruginosa.
Abstract: Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested. As expected, the whole extract presented a powerful antibacterial activity against UPEC while the selected fractions presented a different behavior. Myricetin and quercitrin significantly decreased (p <0.05) E. coli biofilm formation compared with the control, while dihydroferulic acid glucuronide, procyanidin A dimer, quercetin glucoside, myricetin and prodelphinidin B led to a significant decrease of the surface hydrophobicity compared with the control. The results suggest that apart from proanthocyanidins, other compounds, mainly flavonoids, can act against E. coli biofilm formation and also modify UPEC surface hydrophobicity in vitro, one of the first steps of adhesion.
Abstract: Proteus mirabilis is a major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), emphasizing that novel strategies for targeting this bacterium are needed. Potential targets are P. mirabilis surface-associated swarming motility and the propensity of these bacteria to form biofilms that may lead to catheter blockage. We previously showed that the addition of cranberry powder (CP) to lysogeny broth (LB) medium resulted in impaired P. mirabilis swarming motility over short time periods (up to 16 h). Herein, we significantly expanded on those findings by exploring (i) the effects of cranberry derivatives on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis, (ii) whether swarming inhibition occurred transiently or over longer periods more relevant to real infections (~3 days), (iii) whether swarming was also blocked by commercially available cranberry juices, (iv) whether CP or cranberry juices exhibited effects under natural urine conditions, and (v) the effects of cranberry on medium pH, which is an indirect indicator of urease activity. At short time scales (24 h), CP and commercially available pure cranberry juice impaired swarming motility and repelled actively swarming bacteria in LB medium. Over longer time periods more representative of infections (~3 days), the capacity of the cranberry material to impair swarming diminished and bacteria would start to migrate across the surface, albeit by exhibiting a different motility phenotype to the regular "bull's-eye" swarming phenotype of P. mirabilis. This bacterium did not swarm on urine agar or LB agar supplemented with urea, suggesting that any potential application of anti-swarming compounds may be better suited to settings external to the urine environment. Anti-swarming effects were confounded by the ability of cranberry products to enhance biofilm formation in both LB and urine conditions. These findings provide key insights into the long-term strategy of targeting P. mirabilis CAUTIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: We recently reported that a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract (C-PAC) induces autophagic cell death in apoptotic resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells and necrosis in autophagy resistant cells. EAC is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates supporting development of improved preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the context of C-PAC induced cell death. METHODS: Apanel of human esophageal cell lines of EAC or BE (Barrett's esophagus) origin were treated with C-PAC and assessed for ROS modulation using CellROXReg. Green reagent and the Amplex Red assay to specifically measure hydrogen peroxide levels. RESULTS: C-PAC significantly increased ROS levels in EAC cells, but significantly reduced ROS levels in CP-C BE cells. Increased hydrogen peroxide levels were also detected in C-PAC treated EAC cells and supernatant; however, hydrogen peroxide levels were significantly increased in medium alone, without cells, suggesting that C-PAC interferes or directly acts on the substrate. Hydrogen peroxide levels did not change in C-PAC treated CP-C BE cells. CONCLUSION: These experiments provide additional mechanistic insight regarding C-PAC induced cancer cell death through modulation of ROS. Additional research is warranted to identify specific ROS species associated with C-PAC exposure.
Abstract: The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. In a multi-operator/multi-day study design, a cranberry proanthocyanidin (c-PAC) standard was compared to procyanidin A2 (ProA2) dimer for accurate quantification of PAC in commercial cranberry juices, lab generated cranberry blends and cranberry powders. The c-PAC standard reflects the structural heterogeneity of cranberry PAC degree of polymerization, hydroxylation pattern and ratios of 'A-type' to 'B-type' interflavanyl bonds. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 3.6 times higher than those determined by ProA2. Overall, there was no effect (P>0.05) of operator or day on estimation of PAC concentration. The adoption of c-PAC standard should be considered as an improvement over the use of ProA2 for accurate quantification of cranberry PAC. Improved standardization of bioactive PAC components in functional cranberry foods will aid in establishment of dosage guidelines.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are implicated in several chronic human illnesses including type-2 diabetes, renal failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit has been previously reported to show anti-AGEs effects, attributed primarily to its phenolic constituents. However, there is lack of similar data on the non-phenolic constituents found in the cranberry fruit, in particular, its carbohydrate constituents. Herein, a chemically characterized oligosaccharide-enriched fraction purified from the cranberry fruit was evaluated for its potential anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects of a chemically characterized oligosaccharide-enriched fraction purified from the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit. METHOD: The cranberry oligosaccharide-enriched fraction was purified from cranberry hull powder and characterized based on spectroscopic and spectrometric (NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS, and HPAEC-PAD) data. The oligosaccharide-enriched fraction was evaluated for its anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects by the bovine serum albumin-fructose, and DPPH assays, respectively. RESULTS: Fractionation of cranberry hull material yielded an oligosaccharide-enriched fraction named Cranf1b-CL. The 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that Cranf1b-CL consists of oligosaccharides ranging primarily from 6-mers to 9-mers. The monosaccharide composition of Cranf1b-CL was arabinose (25%), galactose (5%), glucose (47%) and xylose (23%). In the bovine serum albumin-fructose assay, Cranf1b-CL inhibited AGEs formation in a concentration-dependent manner with comparable activity to the synthetic antiglycating agent, aminoguanidine, used as the positive control (57 vs. 75%; both at 500 micro g/mL). In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Cranf1b-CL showed superior activity to the synthetic commercial antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene, used as the positive control (IC50=680 vs. 2200 micro g/mL, respectively). CONCLUSION: The in vitro anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects of cranberry oligosaccharides support previous data suggesting that these constituents may also contribute to biological effects of the whole fruit beyond its phenolic constituents alone. Also, this is the first study to evaluate a chemically characterized oligosaccharide fraction purified from the North American cranberry fruit for anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging properties.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival fibroblasts have the potential to participate in periodontal inflammation and breakdown, producing interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during diabetic hyperglycemia, might aggravate periodontal inflammation. The cranberry contains anti-inflammatory polyphenols, which inhibit proinflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and IL-1beta-stimulated human cells. Little is known of its effects on gingival fibroblast IL-6 or MMP-3 production stimulated by AGEs. The objectives were to determine cranberry effects on IL-6 and MMP-3 production by gingival fibroblasts exposed to the representative AGE, glycated human serum albumin (G-HSA), or LPS +/- G-HSA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), was derived from cranberry juice. Normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with G-HSA or normal HSA or Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (1 mug/mL) +/- G-HSA, in the presence or absence of preincubation with NDM. IL-6 and MMP-3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's F procedure. RESULTS: IL-6 production was stimulated by G-HSA or LPS (p < 0.01), which was inhibited in both cases by NDM (p < 0.002). [G-HSA+LPS] synergistically stimulated IL-6 production (p < 0.0001), which was inhibited by NDM. MMP-3 levels were not stimulated by G-HSA but were decreased by LPS (p < 0.02). [G-HSA+LPS] increased MMP-3 production significantly, vs. LPS (p = 0.0005). NDM inhibited MMP-3 levels in the presence of G-HSA or LPS, and in the presence of [G-HSA+LPS] (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: G-HSA +/- LPS may have differential effects on IL-6 and MMP-3 production by human gingival fibroblasts, but both are inhibited by NDM. The study suggests that cranberry phenols may be useful in regulating the host response and perhaps treating periodontitis in patients with poorly controlled diabetes.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) in the TMJ is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and secondary inflammatory changes. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid of TMJ with internal derangement and bony changes. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contains polyphenolic compounds that inhibit production of pro-inflammatory molecules by gingival cells in response to several stimulators. This study examined effects of cranberry components on IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production by human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells. DESIGN: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) was derived from cranberry juice. Human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells from joints with degenerative OA and an ankylosed TMJ without degeneration were incubated with IL-1beta (0.001-1nM)+/-NDM (25-250mug/ml) (2h preincubation). Viability was assessed via activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA; NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors were measured in nuclear extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides. DATA ANALYSIS: ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: NDM did not affect cell viability but inhibited IL-1beta stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production in all cell lines (p<0.05). NDM partially reduced nuclear levels of NF-kappaB and AP-1 (p<0.04), depending upon cell line and time of exposure to IL-1beta+NDM. CONCLUSION: Cranberry NDM inhibition of IL-1beta-stimulated IL- 6, IL-8, and VEGF production by TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells suggests that cranberry components may be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat inflammatory arthropathies of the TMJ.
Abstract: In the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. However, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. Here, we report on the ability of the novel cranberry extract Oximacro and its purified A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in vitro. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that Oximacro prevents adsorption of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to target cells. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Oximacro and its PACs-A target the viral envelope glycoproteins gD and gB, thus resulting in the loss of infectivity of HSV particles. Moreover, Oximacro completely retained its anti-HSV activity even at acidic pHs (3.0 and 4.0) and in the presence of 10% human serum proteins; conditions that mimic the physiological properties of the vagina - a potential therapeutic location for Oximacro. Taken together, these findings indicate Oximacro as an attractive candidate for the development of novel microbicides of natural origin for the prevention of HSV infections.
Abstract: Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.
Abstract: Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain many bioactive compounds and have some biological activities and beneficial health properties. In the study, antioxidant effects of lyophilized aqueous extract of cranberry (LAEC) and quantity of some its polyphenolic compounds were determined. For this purpose, we performed DPPH., DMPD.+, ABTS.+ and O2.- radicals scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity by thiocyanate method, Cu2+ and Fe3+ reducing abilities, FRAP assay and Fe2+ binding activity. At the 10 micro g/mL concentration, LAEC inhibited 52.4% lipid peroxidation produced by linoleic acid emulsion. Also, alpha -tocopherol, BHA, trolox, and BHT had 52.5, 89.9, 93.1 and 94.9% inhibition value at 30 micro g/mL concentration, respectively. Quantitative amounts of some phenolic compounds in LAEC were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). p-Hydroxy benzoic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound (55 mg/kg extract) in LAEC.
Abstract: The exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 muM) with myricetin (2 mM) twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; p<0.001), while hindering S. mutans outgrowth within mixed-species biofilms. As a result, the 3D architecture of cranberry-treated biofilms was severely compromised, showing a defective EPS-matrix and failure to develop microcolonies on the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) surface. Furthermore, topical applications of cranberry flavonoids significantly weaken the mechanical stability of the biofilms; nearly 90% of the biofilm was removed from sHA surface after exposure to a shear stress of 0.449 N/m2 (vs. 36% removal in vehicle-treated biofilms). Importantly, in situ pH measurements in cranberry-treated biofilms showed significantly higher pH values (5.2 +/- 0.1) at the biofilm-apatite interface vs. vehicle-treated biofilms (4.6 +/- 0.1). Altogether, the data provide important insights on how cranberry flavonoids treatments modulate virulence properties by disrupting the biochemical and ecological changes associated with cariogenic biofilm development, which could lead to new alternative or adjunctive antibiofilm/anticaries chemotherapeutic formulations.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the degree of fragmentation of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fruit powders and lyophilized pomace and juices. In analyzed samples, the basic chemical composition, total polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined. Thirty-nine polyphenolic compounds, including 9 phenolic acids, 7 anthocyanins, 9 flavan-3-ols and 14 flavonols, were identified. Polyphenolic concentrations in pomaces ranged from 16 038.74 mg/100 g DW in samples from whole fruits to 17 802.52 mg/100 g DW in samples from crushed fruits. In juices, phenolic concentrations ranged from 873.12 mg/100 g DW in products from whole fruits to 3177.87 mg/100 g DW in products from crushed fruits. Antioxidant capacities were higher in dry products than in juices. The highest DPPH, ABTS and FRAP values were determined in dry pomaces obtained from crushed fruits (156.94, 275.22 and 71.47 micro mol/g DW, respectively).
Abstract: A new method based on nano-liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano-LC-TOF-MS) using lock-mass calibration was developed to facilitate the accurate and routine characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds. Thus, it was applied to study cranberry syrups, in which, using negative ionization mode, a total of nine phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified using standards and 38 tentatively taking into account their retention time, accurate mass (errors<5 ppm) data and isotope pattern, as well as literature. Among them, 13 compounds, belonging to flavonols and iridoids conjugated with phenolic acids, were reported for first time in cranberry or cranberry based-products. The analytical method was also validated using chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin A2, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, and myricetin standards. In this way, the analytical method showed adequate linearity, with R(2) above 0.99, and acceptable values of intra- and inter-day repeatability of the retention time and peak area. The detection limits and quantification were between 1.0-15.6 ng mL(-1) and 2.0-62.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method can be extended to characterize phenolic compounds in other food and plant matrices, and as well biological samples.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 billion litres of juices in 2011 and a great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed at mapping the quality of various juices from different botanical origins from instrumental taste, chemical marker and antioxidant capacity perspectives. It also characterized the individual phenolic composition of juices previously classified according to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic material level.
RESULTS: Overall, by using correlation analysis and chemometrics (HCA and PCA), data showed that total phenolics, specifically gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols, are the main contributors to the antioxidant activity. Elderberry and pomegranate juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, orange, apple and cranberry juices had the lowest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, DPPH and CUPRAC.
CONCLUSION: The use of chemometrics coupled to ANOVA seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the quality of fruit juices from different botanical origins. Additionally, the instrumental taste profile correlated well with the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity, showing its potential application in assessing the functionality of juices.
Abstract: Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage are implicated in various chronic pathologies. Emerging studies show that polyphenols may act by increasing endogenous antioxidant defense potential. Cranberry has one of the highest polyphenol content among commonly consumed fruits. In this study, the hepato-protective activity of a cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry extract (CE) powders against oxidative stress was screened using HepG2 cells, looking at ROS production, intracellular non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defenses by reduced glutathione concentration (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity and lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). Involvement of major protein kinase signaling pathways was also evaluated. Both powders in basal conditions did not affect cell viability but decreased ROS production and increased GPx activity, conditions that may place the cells in favorable conditions against oxidative stress. Powder pre-treatment of HepG2 cells for 20 h significantly reduced cell damage induced by 400 micro M tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) for 2 h. Both powders (5-50 micro g/ml) reduced t-BOOH-induced increase of MDA by 20% (CJ) and 25% (CE), and significantly reduced over-activated GPx and GR. CE, with a significantly higher amount of polyphenols than CJ, prevented a reduction in GSH and significantly reduced ROS production. CJ reversed the t-BOOH-induced increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. This study demonstrates that cranberry polyphenols may help protect liver cells against oxidative insult by modulating GSH concentration, ROS and MDA generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways.
Abstract: It has previously been shown that lyophilized cranberries (LCB) decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the expression of key transcription factors (PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, SREBP1) of the adipogenesis pathway. To elucidate the molecular basis of anti-lipogenic activity of LCB, the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (PLIN1), was examined in the present study. Additionally, the effects of LCB on adiponectin and leptin expression and protein secretion were also investigated. LCB reduced lipid accumulation during preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the mRNA level of aP2, FAS, LPL, HSL and PLIN1. Moreover, LCB decreased leptin gene expression and increased adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore cranberries could be considered as bioactive factors, which are effective in the inhibition of adipose tissue mass production.
Abstract: Procyanidins in cranberries are predominantly polymers (>85%). The objective of this study was to optimise the depolymerisation of polymers and to investigate the absorption of resultant oligomers on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Depolymerisation conditions were optimised using response surface methodology. Depolymerisation, with or without added epicatechin, yielded 644 mug and 202 mug of oligomers (monomer through tetramers) per mg of partially purified polymers (PP), respectively. Oligomers (yielded from both methods) were transported through Caco-2 cell monolayer despite absorption rates being low. With the aid of response surface methodology, the optimum depolymerisation conditions were determined to be 60degreeC, 0.1M HCl in methanol and 3h without added epicatechin. The predicted maximum yield was 364 mug oligomers per mg of PP. The optimum depolymerisation condition with added epicatechin shared the same temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, in addition to an epicatechin/PP mass ratio of 2.19. Its predicted maximum oligomer yield was 1,089 mug/mg. The predicted yields were verified by experimental data.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The human antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37) possesses anti-inflammatory properties that may contribute to attenuating the inflammatory process associated with chronic periodontitis. Plant polyphenols, including those from cranberry and green tea, have been reported to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion by host cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) and green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) act in synergy with LL-37 to reduce the secretion of inflammatory mediators by oral mucosal cells.
METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of AC-PACs (25 and 50 mug/ml), EGCG (1 and 5 mug/ml), and LL-37 (0.1 and 0.2 muM) individually and in combination (AC-PACs+LL-37 and EGCG+LL-37) were stimulated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Multiplex ELISA assays were used to quantify the secretion of 54 host factors, including chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).
RESULTS: LL-37, AC-PACs, and EGCG, individually or in combination, had no effect on the regulation of MMP and TIMP secretion but inhibited the secretion of several cytokines. AC-PACs and LL-37 acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (GRO-alpha), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and had an additive effect on reducing the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to LPS stimulation. EGCG and LL-37 acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of GRO-alpha, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, and had an additive effect on MCP-1 secretion.
CONCLUSION: The combination of LL-37 and natural polyphenols from cranberry and green tea acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of several cytokines by an LPS-stimulated 3D co-culture model of oral mucosal cells. Such combinations show promising results as potential adjunctive therapies for treating inflammatory periodontitis.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent extraintestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Cranberry juice has been used for decades to alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrent UTI. The putative compounds in cranberries are proanthocyanidins (PAC), specifically PAC with "A-type" bonds. Since PAC are not absorbed, their health benefits in UTI may occur through interactions at the mucosal surface in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent research showed that higher agglutination of ExPEC and reduced bacterial invasion are correlated with higher number of "A-type" bonds and higher degree of polymerization of PAC. An understanding of PAC structure-activity relationship is becoming feasible due to advancements, not only in obtaining purified PAC fractions that allow accurate estimation, but also in high-resolution MS methodologies, specifically, MALDI-TOF MS. A recent MALDI-TOF MS deconvolution method allows quantification of the ratios of "A-type" to "B-type" bonds enabling characteristic fingerprints. Moreover, the generation of fluorescently labeled PAC allows visualization of the interaction between ExPEC and PAC with microscopy. These tools can be used to establish structure-activity relationships between PAC and UTI and give insight on the mechanism of action of these compounds in the gut without being absorbed.
Abstract: The free and bound phenols have been measured in 20 fruits commonly consumed in the American diet. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard after correction for ascorbic acid contribution. On a fresh weight basis, cranberry had the highest total phenols, and was distantly followed by red grape. Free and total phenol quality in the fruits was analyzed by using the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation promoted by cupric ion. Ascorbate had only a minor contribution to the antioxidants in fruits with the exception of melon, nectarine, orange, white grape, and strawberry. The fruit extracts' antioxidant quality was better than the vitamin antioxidants and most pure phenols, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. Using our assay, fruits had significantly better quantity and quality of phenol antioxidants than vegetables. Fruits, specifically apples and cranberries, have phenol antioxidants that can enrich lower density lipoproteins and protect them from oxidation. The average per capita consumption of fruit phenols in the U.S. is estimated to be 255 mg/day of catechin equivalents.
Abstract: Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor kappaB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1-alpha, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction.
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.
Abstract: Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) products have been used to prevent uropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli adherence to uroepithelial cells (UEC) and may help reduce risk of urinary tract infection. Reported herein are the development and validation of an assay to assess antiadhesion activity of V. macrocarpon extracts and human urine. P-fimbriated E. coli (CFT073) was labeled with H-uridine, then co-incubated with HTB-4 UEC at a 400:1 ratio. V. macrocarpon extracts (0-17 mg proanthocyanidins/mL) were added to H-labeled E. coli before co-incubating with UEC. The assay yielded a sensitive inhibition curve: the lower limit of detection and half-maximal inhibitory concentration were 0.43 and 1.59 mg proanthocyanidins/mL for V. macrocarpon extract CEP 55; intra- and interassay coefficients of variance were <10% and <15%, respectively. V. macrocarpon extract CEP 3283 showed identical adhesion inhibition. Serial dilutions of urine from human participants who consumed V. macrocarpon beverages showed a linear decrease in antiadhesion activity. Antiadhesion assays conducted with urine from a human intervention study also showed good agreement with results obtained using the hemagglutination assay. Therefore, a sensitive, high-throughput, biologically relevant antiadhesion assay using H-E. coli co-incubated with UEC is reported, which can be used for studying the action of V. macrocarpon bioactives.
Abstract: In this study, five common proanthocyanidin purification techniques were evaluated prior to phloroglucinolysis, followed by HPLC analysis. An optimized purification method was then used to identify and quantify the proanthocyanidins (extension and terminal units of epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, A type trimer, and A type dimer) of commercially available cranberry products (juices, concentrates, tablets, and capsules; n=17). Two size exclusion beads (Toyopearl 4 TSK HW-40C and Sephadex LH-20) were found suitable for proanthocyanidin purification, though proanthocyanidin extension and terminal unit composition was contingent upon the cleanup procedure utilized. These data illustrate that purification methods require consideration prior to conducting any cranberry proanthocyanidin analyses, and have to be accounted for when comparing values between studies. Total proanthocyanidin levels ranged from 11.7 (juice) to 436.4 (tablet) mg/100 mL or 100 g values obtained from Sephadex LH-20 purification, while total anthocyanin levels ranged from 0.54 (juice) to 98.00 (tablet) mg/100 mL or 100 g.
Abstract: The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abstract: A method to deconvolute overlapping isotope patterns in positive mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed to determine ratios of A- to B-type interflavan bonds in proanthocyanidins that were isolated from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ait.) press cake (c-PAC). Precision and accuracy was validated for binary mixtures of procyanidins A2 and B2. Deconvolution of c-PAC spectra indicated that oligomers with one or more A-type interflavan bonds occur in a higher proportion than oligomers with all B-type interflavan bonds. c-PAC with at least one A-type bond accounted for more than 91% of the oligomers between trimers and undecamers. The c-PAC isotope patterns are highly repeatable, suggesting that the method can be applied to authentication, standardization and efficacy of cranberry products in relationship to urinary tract health. This is the first time MALDI-TOF MS has been used for estimating ratios of A- to B-type bonds in PAC.
Abstract: Cranberry procyanidins have been associated with an effect against urinary tract infections (UTI) for decades, and
European health claims are requested. This study compares the procyanidin profiles and concentrations of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), European cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus L.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatoraphy coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray interface
(UHPLC-MS2). Concentrations of A-type trimers, procyanidin A2, catechin, epicatechin, and B-type dimers and trimers have been evaluated and compared for the first time in the three berries. The data clearly show remarkable differences in the procyanidin profiles and concentrations, especially the lack of A-type trimers in V. oxycoccus; thus, the effectiveness against UTI may vary among the Vaccinium species. These differences can be used to prove authenticity.
Abstract: The human health benefits from consumption of cranberry products have been associated with the fruits’ unique flavonoid composition, including a complex profile of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. However, when
processed by techniques such as pressing, canning, concentrating, or drying, a number of these natural components may be compromised or inactivated due to physical separation, thermal degradation, or oxidation. Fresh cranberries were compared to freeze-dried berries and individual fruit tissues (skin and peeled fruit). Products examined included cranberry juices (commercial and prepared from concentrate), cranberry sauces (commercial and homemade), and sweetened-dried cranberries (commercial). Freeze-drying resulted in no detectable losses of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins from cranberry
fruits. Anthocyanins were localized in the skin. Proanthocyanins were higher in the skin than in the flesh, with the exception of procyanidin A-2 dimer which was concentrated in the flesh. Anthocyanins were significantly higher in not-from-concentrate juice than in reconstituted juice from concentrate (8.3 mg and 4.2 mg/100 mL, respectively). Similarly, proanthocyanidins were markedly higher in not-from-concentrate juice compared to juice from concentrate (23.0 mg and 8.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Homemade sauce contained far higher anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (15.9 and 87.9 mg/100 g, respectively) than canned sauces processed with whole berries (9.6 and 54.4 mg/100 g, respectively) or jelled-type (1.1 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively). Sweetened-dried cranberries were quite low in anthocyanins
(7.9 mg/100 g), but they still retained considerable proanthocyanidins (64.2 mg/100 g). Commercially processed products contained significantly lower levels of polyphenols as compared to fresh and home-processed preparations. Anthocyanins were more sensitive to degradation than proanthocyanidins.
Abstract: A-type procyanidin oligomers in cranberries are known to inhibit the adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria. B-type procyanidins dimers and trimers are absorbed by humans. The absorption of A-type procyanidins from cranberries in humans has not been demonstrated. This study examined the transport of A-type cranberry procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers on differentiated human intestinal
epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Procyanidins were extracted from cranberries and purified using hromatographic methods. Fraction I contained predominantly A-type procyanidin dimer A2 [epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-epicatechin]. Fraction II contained primarily A-type trimers and tetramers, with B-type trimers, A-type
pentamers, and A-type hexamers being minor components. Fraction I or II in solution were added onto the apical side of the Caco-2 cell membranes. The media at the basolateral side of the membranes were analyzed using HPLC-MSn after 2 h. Data indicated that procyanidin dimer A2 in fraction I and A-type trimers and tetramers in fraction II traversed across Caco-2 cell monolayers with transport ratio of 0.6%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. This study demonstrated A-type dimers, trimers, and tetramers were transported across Caco-2 cells at low rates, suggesting they could be absorbed by humans after cranberry consumption.
Abstract: The phenolic fraction of a commercial cranberry syrup, which is purported to have good properties for the prevention of urinary diseases, has been thoroughly characterized using HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS. A study of its antibacterial activity has also been carried out. For this purpose a new HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS method using negative and positive ionization modes was developed and it was thus possible to identify 34 different compounds, nine of which have been tentatively characterized for the first time in cranberry syrup. It is also important to highlight that different coumarins in this matrix were also determined, which, to our knowledge, have not been found previously in the cranberry. The phenolic fraction obtained by HPLC-DAD was found to be 5.47 mg/mL. Catechin and procyanidins belonging to flavanols were the family of compounds found at the highest concentrations (2.37 mg/mL); flavonols were at a concentration of 1.91 mg/mL and phenolic-acid derivatives were found at the lowest concentration (0.15 mg/mL). With regard to antibacterial activity, the incubation of Escherichia coli with cranberry syrup was found to reduce surface hydrophobicity as a function of the concentration of the extract.
Abstract: A GC-MS method was developed for the determination of various flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma. The procedure involved the extraction of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids with ethyl acetate, followed by the derivatization of the phenolic and benzoic compounds with BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide) + TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) reagent. The trimethylsilyl derivatives formed were separated and quantitated using GC-MS. Twenty flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic compounds have been well separated in the spiked human plasma without any interference. The average recovery was 79.3%. Several phenolic acids such as o-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, ferulic, sinapic, and benzoic acid were identified and quantified in human plasma after consumption of a cranberry juice. This developed method provides a simple, specific, and sensitive technique for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma and is suitable for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies.
Abstract: A combination of microplate technology and turbidity assessment for testing the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cell line T24, validated with the addition of the known inhibitor 4-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-alpha-D-galactopyranose (galabiose), resulted in a high-throughput, biologically relevant assessment of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). P-fimbriated ATCC E. coli strains 25922, 29194, and 49161 were inhibited by galabiose. ATCC 29194, a representative urine isolate containing the papGII allele (Class II fimbrial adhesin) and demonstrating the most significant inhibition in the presence of galabiose, was chosen for further testing. In this assay, a low-polarity fraction of cranberry juice cocktail demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of E. coli adherence. Reported here, for the first time in V. macrocarpon, are 1-O-methylgalactose, prunin, and phlorizin, identified in an active fraction of cranberry juice concentrate. This in vitro assay will be useful for the standardization of cranberry dietary supplements and is currently being used for bioassay-guided fractionation of cranberry juice concentrate.