Abstract: Background and Objectives. Recently, we described an inverse association between cranberry supplementation and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients with negative biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. This double blind placebo controlled study evaluates the effects of cranberry consumption on PSA values and other markers in men with PCa before radical prostatectomy. Methods: Prior to surgery, 64 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a cranberry or placebo group. The cranberry group (n=32) received a mean 30 days of 1500 mg cranberry fruit powder. The control group (n=32) took a similar amount of placebo. Selected blood/urine markers as well as free and total phenolics in urine were measured at baseline and on the day of surgery in both groups. Prostate tissue markers were evaluated after surgery. Results: The serum PSA significantly decreased by 22.5% in the cranberry arm (n=31, P<0.05). A trend to down-regulation of urinary beta-microseminoprotein (MSMB) and serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, as well as upregulation of IGF-1 was found after cranberry supplementation. There were no changes in prostate tissue markers or, composition and concentration of phenolics in urine. Conclusions: Daily consumption of a powdered cranberry fruit lowered serum PSA in patients with prostate cancer. The whole fruit contains constituents that may regulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes.
Abstract: AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess whether the oral intake of cranberry juice cocktail compared with apple juice was associated with a significant difference in urinary symptoms experienced during radical external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve men with prostate cancer were randomised to either 354 ml cranberry juice or apple juice a day. Stratification was based on a history of a previous transurethral resection of prostate (TURP yes/no) and baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS < 6 or > or = 6) of urinary symptoms. RESULTS: The maximum IPSS (MRT) and the maximum change in IPSS from baseline (DRT) are used to report the results. We analysed the effects of juice allocation on DRT and MRT using analysis of covariates (ANCOVA). We observed no significant difference for DRT (P = 0.39) or MRT (P = 0.76) related to the consumption of cranberry compared with apple juice. However, we found a significant relationship between the history of a previous TURP and both DRT (P = 0.01) and MRT (P = 0.01). The history of a previous TURP was associated with lower values for both end points. Baseline IPSS was significant for DRT (P = 0.004) and MRT (P < or = 0.001). We found a significant relationship between the baseline IPSS < 6 or > or = 6 cut point on MRT (P < or = 0.001) but not on DRT (P = 0.43). The use of neoadjuvant hormones had no significant effect on DRT (P = 0.64) or MRT (P = 0.76). The use of additional symptomatic medication during the study was not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows no significant difference in the urinary symptoms experienced during EBRT related to the consumption of cranberry juice compared with apple juice.