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Antibiofilm Properties of Triclosan with EDTA or Cranberry as Foley Catheter Lock Solutions.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Ayyash M; Shehabi AA; Mahmoud NN; Al-Bakri AG.
Journal: 
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 127(6):1876-1888
Abstract: 

AIMS: To investigate the efficiency of triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cranberry alone or in combinations against Escherichia coli strains as urinary catheter lock solutions to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections.METHODS AND RESULTS: Viable counting was used to assess antibiofilm activities for triclosan, EDTA and cranberry alone or in combinations against E. coli strains embedded in biofilm onto all-silicon Foley catheter surface. The results revealed that combination of triclosan (10 mg ml-1 /EDTA 30 mg ml-1 ) when filling the catheter balloon was able to eradicate and prevent biofilm formation among all tested E. coli including the resistant strains, whereas triclosan (8.5 mg ml-1 )/ cranberry (103 mg ml-1 ) combination was a successful catheter lock solution by preventing all tested strains from adhering onto catheter surface when filled via the eye hole.CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry were significantly effective in eradicating and preventing biofilm formation of the tested E. coli strains on Foley catheters.SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry have a promising application as nonantibiotic catheter lock solution.

Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Different Mouthrinses against Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Abu-Obaid E; Salama F; Abu-Obaid A; Alanazi F; Salem M; Auda S.
Journal: 
Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 43(6):398-407
Abstract: 

Purpose: To assess the antimicrobial effects of different natural and semi-natural mouthrinses on isolates of S. mutans obtained from the saliva of Saudi children and reference strains of S mutans (ATCC 25175). Study design: Saliva samples were collected from 20 children. Natural and semi-natural mouthrinses included were herbal mix mouthrinse, cranberry mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, cranberry extract mixed with chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse with alcohol (positive control), and distilled water (negative control). The microbiological examination tests were minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration, and zone of inhibition for the saliva isolates of S. mutans while zone of inhibition test only for reference strain of S. mutans. Results: For reference strain in a comparison with the distilled water, the herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly increased zones of inhibition by 36.38, 36.25, 26.13, 17.75, and 12.38, respectively. For saliva isolates in a comparison with the distilled water, the herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly increased zones of inhibition by 38.00, 34.25, 22.94, 16.50, and 16.44, respectively. Chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration than the other groups. Conclusions: Herbal mix and cranberry mouthrinses could be effective natural alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse with or without alcohol in affecting tested parameters.

Cranberry Extracts Promote Growth of Bacteroidaceae and Decrease Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in A Guman Gut Simulator Model.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
O'Connor, K. Morrissette, M. Strandwitz, P. Ghiglieri, M. Caboni, M. Liu HaiYan Khoo, C. D'Onofrio, A. Lewis, K.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE; 2019. 14(11):e0224836.
Abstract: 

The opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli, a common member of the human gut microbiota belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causative agent of the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The gut microbiota serves as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli where they are shed in feces, colonize the periurethral area, and infect the urinary tract. Currently, front line treatment for UTIs consists of oral antibiotics, but the rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to higher rates of recurrence, and antibiotics cause collateral damage to other members of the gut microbiota. It is commonly believed that incorporation of the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, into the diet is useful for reducing recurrence of UTIs. We hypothesized such a benefit might be explained by a prebiotic or antimicrobial effect on the gut microbiota. As such, we tested cranberry extracts and whole cranberry powder on a human gut microbiome-derived community in a gut simulator and found that cranberry components broadly modulate the microbiota by reducing the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and increasing the abundance of Bacteroidaceae. To identify the specific compounds responsible for this, we tested a panel of compounds isolated from cranberries for activity against E. coli, and found that salicylate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both laboratory E. coli and human UTI E. coli isolates. In a gut simulator, salicylate reduced levels of Enterobacteriaceae and elevated Bacteroidaceae in a dose dependent manner.

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Neutralize the Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Amel Ben Lagha, Amy Howell and Daniel Grenier
Journal: 
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110662
Abstract: 

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been strongly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The capacity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to produce a leukotoxin (LtxA) that activates pyroptosis in macrophages and induces the release of endogenous danger signals is thought to play a key role in the disease process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) on gene expression and cytotoxic activities of LtxA. We showed that cranberry PACs dose-dependently attenuate the expression of genes making up the leukotoxin operon, including ltxB and ltxC, in the two strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans tested. Cranberry PACs (≥62.5 µg/mL) protected macrophages against the cytotoxic effect of purified LtxA. Moreover, cranberry PACs reduced caspase-1 activation in LtxA-treated macrophages and consequently decreased the release of both IL-1β and IL-18, which are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and contribute to the progression of periodontitis by increasing cell migration and osteoclastogenesis. In addition, cranberry PACs reduced the expression of genes encoding the P2X7 receptor and NALP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3), which play key roles in pore formation and cell death. Lastly, cranberry PACs blocked the binding of LtxA to macrophages and consequently reduced the LtxA-mediated cytotoxicity. In summary, the present study showed that cranberry PACs reduced LtxA gene expression in A. actinomycetemcomitans and neutralized the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory responses of human macrophages treated with LtxA. Given these properties, cranberry PACs may represent promising molecules for prevention and treatment of the aggressive form of periodontitis caused by A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Dietary Berries, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Human Feeding Trials.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Calvano, A. Izuora, K. Oh, E. C. Ebersole, J. L. Lyons, T. J. Basu, A.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6227-6243
Abstract: 

Dietary berries are a rich source of several nutrients and phytochemicals and in recent years, accumulating evidence suggests they can reduce risks of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the role of dietary berries (taken as fresh, frozen, or other processed forms) on insulin resistance and biomarkers of T2D in human feeding studies. Reported feeding trials involve different berries taken in different forms, and consequently differences in nutritional or polyphenol composition must be considered in their interpretation. Commonly consumed berries, especially cranberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance, and in adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In non-acute long-term studies, these berries either alone, or in combination with other functional foods or dietary interventions, can improve glycemic and lipid profiles, blood pressure and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. Studies specifically in people with T2D are few, and more knowledge is needed. Nevertheless, existing evidence, although sparse, suggests that berries have an emerging role in dietary strategies for the prevention of diabetes and its complications in adults. Despite the beneficial effects of berries on diabetes prevention and management, they must be consumed as part of a healthy and balanced diet.

Role of Berry Bioactive Compounds on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Basu, A.
Journal: 
Nutrients; 2019. 11(9):1983
Abstract: 

Blood lipids are an important biomarker of cardiovascular health and disease. Among the lipid biomarkers that have been widely used to monitor and predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD), elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol (C), as well as elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, deserve special attention in their predictive abilities, and thus have been the targets of several therapeutic and dietary approaches to improving lipid profiles. Among natural foods and nutraceuticals, dietary berries are a rich source of nutrients, fiber, and various types of phytochemicals. Berries as whole fruits, juices, and purified extracts have been shown to lower total and LDL-C, and increase HDL-C in clinical studies in participants with elevated blood lipids, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This short review aimed to further discuss the mechanisms and magnitude of the lipid-lowering effects of dietary berries, with emphasis on reported clinical studies. Based on the emerging evidence, colorful berry fruits may thus be included in a healthy diet for the prevention and management of CVD.

The Effect of Cranberry Fruit Extract on Alpha -Synuclein Protein Expression using Immunostaining Techniques

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Kumar, J. Sarvesh; Priya, V. Vishnu; Gayathri, R.
Journal: 
Drug Invention Today . Jun2019, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p1506-1508
Abstract: 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the neuroprotective effect of cranberry fruit extract by reducing the release of this biomarker by immunostaining techniques. Objective: The present study is to find out the alpha-lipoic acid cranberry fruit extract on alpha-synuclein protein expression using immunostaining techniques. Materials and Methods: The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of cranberry fruit extract and were incubated with primary antibody alpha-synuclein and the antigen-antibody activity was visualized under a light microscope, and the results were quantified using image analysis software. Results: The study infers that when cranberry extract is added to the neurotoxic cell lines, the antigen-antibody reaction is interfered and as the concentration of cranberry fruit extract increases the corresponding decrease in the expression of the alpha-synuclein protein can be seen. Conclusion: Cranberry fruit extract proves to effectively reduce the expression of alpha-synuclein protein in neurotoxic cell lines so further research must be conducted in this field to discover the useful effects of cranberry so that it can be used as a neuroprotective agent in medicines to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

Dietary Cranberry Suppressed Colonic Inflammation and Alleviated Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Treated Mice.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Cai XiaoKun; Han YanHui; Gu Min; Song MingYue; Wu Xian; Li ZhengZe; Li Fang; Goulette, T.; Xiao Hang
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6331-6341
Abstract: 

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha ) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p<0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in alpha -diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.

Pure Polyphenols and Cranberry Juice High in Anthocyanins Increase Antioxidant Capacity in Animal Organs.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Bariexca, T. Ezdebski, J. Redan, B. W. Vinson, J.
Journal: 
Foods; 2019. 8(8):340.
Abstract: 

Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order to be bioactive in vivo, they need to be bioavailable and be transported from the circulation to target organs. To date, there have been few studies testing the extent to which polyphenols and especially anthocyanins affect the antioxidant capacity of animal organs. In our first pilot study, we investigated how three pure polyphenols (the flavonoids quercetin, catechin and hesperetin) given to rats by intraperitoneal injection (49 to 63 mg/kg) affected their organ antioxidant capacity. This was followed by a subsequent study that injected one ml of 100% cranberry juice (high in anthocyanins) to hamsters. Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). Overall the results showed that antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p<0.05) in experimental vs. control organs. Analysis of organs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from both animal studies provided evidence of polyphenol metabolites in the organ extracts. Taken together, this study provides data that the administration of anthocyanins and other polyphenols cause an increase in organ antioxidant capacity in two animal models. This result supports the growing evidence for the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols reduce the risk and extent of various chronic disease at the disease site.

Cranberry Attenuates Progression of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Shimizu K; Ono M; Imoto A; Nagayama H; Tetsumura N; Terada T; Tomita K; Nishinaka T.
Journal: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 42(8):1295-1302
Abstract: 

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.

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