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A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects against endogenous exposure to persistent organic pollutants during weight loss in mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Choi SoYun [Choi, S. Y. B.]; Varin, T. V.; St-Pierre, P.; Pilon, G.; Tremblay, A.; Marette, A..
Journal: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology; 2020. 146.
Abstract: 

The dramatic rise in the global occurrence of obesity and associated diseases calls for new strategies to promote weight loss. However, while the beneficial effects of weight loss are well known, rapid loss of fat mass can also lead to the endogenous release of liposoluble molecules with potential harmful effects, such as persistent organic pollutants (POP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CE) on POP release and their potential deleterious effects during weight loss of obese mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed an obesogenic diet with or without a mixture of POP for 12 weeks and then changed to a low-fat diet to induce weight loss and endogenous POP release. The POP-exposed mice were then separated in two groups during weight loss, receiving either CE or the vehicle. Unexpectedly, despite the higher fat loss in the CE-treated group, the circulating levels of POP were not enhanced in these mice. Moreover, glucose homeostasis was further improved during CE-induced weight loss, as revealed by lower fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the CE extract also induced changes in the gut microbiota after weight loss in POP-exposed mice, including blooming of Parvibacter, a member of the Coriobacteriaceae family which has been predicted to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism. Our data thus suggests that the gut microbiota can be targeted by polyphenol-rich extracts to protect from increased POP exposure and their detrimental metabolic effects during rapid weight loss

Anti-inflammatory and macrophage polarization effects of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins (PACs) for periodontal and peri-implant disease therapy

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Galarraga-Vinueza ME; Dohle E; Ramanauskaite A; Al-Maawi S; Obreja K; Magini R; Sader R; Ghanaati S; Schwarz F.
Journal: 
Journal of Periodontal Research. 55(6):821-829, 2020 Dec
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Macrophages' cytokine expression and polarization play a substantial role in the host's "destructive" inflammatory response to periodontal and peri-implant pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate cell viability, anti-inflammatory activity, and macrophage polarization properties of different cranberry concentrates. METHODS: THP-1 cells (monocytic line) were treated with phorbol myristic acid to induce macrophage differentiation. Human gingival fibroblasts (HFIB-G cell line), osteosarcoma-derived osteoblasts (SAOS-2 cell line), and induced macrophages were treated with cranberry concentrates at 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL for 120 seconds, 1 hour and 24 hours. Untreated cells at the same time points served as controls. For anti-inflammatory analysis, induced macrophages exposed to cranberry concentrates (A-type PACs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from E coli for 24 hours. Cell viability, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1 s, IL-6, and IL-10 expression of LPS-stimulated macrophages, and macrophage polarization markers were evaluated through determination of live-cell protease activity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence staining semi-quantification. RESULTS: Cranberry concentrates (A-type PACs) did not reduce HGF, SAOS-2, and macrophage viability after 24 hours of exposure. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (ie IL-8 and IL-6) was downregulated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by cranberry concentrates at 50 and 100 microg/mL. Anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression was significantly upregulated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by cranberry concentrates at 100 microg/mL after 24 hours of exposure. M1 polarization significantly decreased when LPS-stimulated macrophages were exposed to cranberry concentrates. High levels of positive M1 macrophages were present in all untreated control groups. M2 polarization significantly increased at all LPS-stimulated macrophages exposed to cranberry concentrates for 1 and 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins may have the potential to act as an anti-inflammatory component in the therapy of periodontal and peri-implant diseases.

Berry polyphenols and fibers modulate distinct microbial metabolic functions and gut microbiota enterotype-like clustering in obese mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Daza, M. C.; Roquim, M.; Dudonne, S.; Pilon, G.; Levy, E.; Marette, A.; Roy, D.; Desjardins, Y.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology; 2020. 11(August).
Abstract: 

Berries are rich in polyphenols and plant cell wall polysaccharides (fibers), including cellulose, hemicellulose, arabinans and arabino-xyloglucans rich pectin. Most of polyphenols and fibers are known to be poorly absorbed in the small intestine and reach the colon where they interact with the gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. This study assessed the contribution of polyphenol-rich whole cranberry and blueberry fruit powders (CP and BP), and that of their fibrous fractions (CF and BF) on modulating the gut microbiota, the microbial functional profile and influencing metabolic disorders induced by high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 8 weeks. Lean mice-associated taxa, including Akkermansia muciniphila, Dubosiella newyorkensis, and Angelakisella, were selectively induced by diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP and BP. Fiber-rich CF also triggered polyphenols-degrading families Coriobacteriaceae and Eggerthellaceae. Diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP, but not with its fiber-rich CF, reduced fat mass depots, body weight and energy efficiency in HFHS-fed mice. However, CF reduced liver triglycerides in HFHS-fed mice. Importantly, polyphenol-rich CP-diet normalized microbial functions to a level comparable to that of Chow-fed controls. Using multivariate association modeling, taxa and predicted functions distinguishing an obese phenotype from healthy controls and berry-treated mice were identified. The enterotype-like clustering analysis underlined the link between a long-term diet intake and the functional stratification of the gut microbiota. The supplementation of a HFHS-diet with polyphenol-rich CP drove mice gut microbiota from Firmicutes/Ruminococcus enterotype into an enterotype linked to healthier host status, which is Prevotella/Akkermansiaceae. This study highlights the prebiotic role of polyphenols, and their contribution to the compositional and functional modulation of the gut microbiota, counteracting obesity..

Combined cranberry supplementation and weight loss diet in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Hormoznejad, R.; Shahi, M. M.; Rahim, F.; Helli, B.; Alavinejad, P.; Sharhani, A.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition; 2020. 71(8):991-1000.
Abstract: 

A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial was conducted on 41 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were randomly allocated to receive either a cranberry supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. Both groups were assigned to follow a weight loss diet. At the end of the study, alanine aminotransferase and insulin decreased significantly in both groups (p < .05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in the cranberry group than in the placebo group (p < .05). Significant improvements in insulin resistance were observed in the cranberry group and between the two groups (p < .001 and p = .020, respectively). Also, there was an improvement in steatosis grade and anthropometric measurements in both groups (p < .05), and there was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to these factors (p > .05). It seems that 288 mg of cranberry extract might improve managing NAFLD, which is equivalent to 26 g of dried cranberry..

Cranberry extract-based formulations for preventing bacterial biofilms

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Greene AC; Acharya AP; Lee SB; Gottardi R; Zaleski E; Little SR.
Journal: 
Drug Delivery & Translational Research. 2020 Aug 11.
Abstract: 

Generating formulations for the delivery of a mixture of natural compounds extracted from natural sources is a challenge because of unknown active and inactive ingredients and possible interactions between them. As one example, natural cranberry extracts have been proposed for the prevention of biofilm formation on dental pellicle or teeth. However, such extracts may contain phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides along with other constituents like coumaroyl iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, n-6 (or n-3) fatty acids, and crude fiber. Due to the presence of a variety of compounds, determining which molecules (and how many molecules) are essential for preventing biofilm growth is nontrivial to ascertain. Therefore, a formulation that could contain natural, unrefined, cranberry extract (with all its constituent compounds) at high loading would be ideal. Accordingly, we have generated several candidate formulations including poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based microencapsulation of cranberry extract (CE15) as well as formulations including stearic acid along with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or Ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) complexed with cranberry extracts (CE15). We found that stearic acid in combination with PVP or LAE as excipients led to higher loading of the active and inactive compounds in CE15 as compared with a PLGA microencapsulation and also sustained release of CE15 in a tunable manner. Using this method, we have been able to generate two successful formulations (one preventative based, one treatment based) that effectively inhibit biofilm growth when incubated with saliva. In addition to cranberry extract, this technique could also be a promising candidate for other natural extracts to form controlled release systems.

Cranberry polyphenolic extract exhibits an antiobesity effect on high-fat diet-fed mice through increased thermogenesis

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhou Fang; Guo JieLong; Han Xue; Gao YunXiao; Chen QiMin; Huang WeiDong; Zhan JiCheng; Huang DeJian; You YiLin
Journal: 
Journal of Nutrition; 2020. 150(8):2131-2138.
Abstract: 

Background: Although polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts reportedly have an antiobesity effect, the exact reason for this remains unclear. Objectives: In light of the reported health benefits of the polyphenolic compounds in cranberry, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a cranberry polyphenolic extract (CPE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Methods: The distributions of individual CPE compounds were characterized by HPLC fingerprinting. Male C57BL/6J mice (4 wk old) were fed for 16 wk normal diet (ND, 10% fat energy) or HFD (60% fat energy) with or without 0.75% CPE in drinking water (HFD + CPE). Body and adipose depot weights, indices of glucose metabolism, energy expenditure (EE), and expression of genes related to brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and inguinal/epididymal white adipose tissue (iWAT/eWAT) browning were measured. Results: After 16 wk, the body weight was 22.5% lower in the CPE-treated mice than in the HFD group but remained 17.9% higher than in the ND group. CPE treatment significantly increased EE compared with that of the ND and HFD groups. The elevated EE was linked with BAT thermogenesis, and iWAT/eWAT browning, shown by the induction of thermogenic genes, especially uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and browning-related genes, including Cd137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf9). The mRNA expression and abundance of uncoupling protein 1 in BAT of CPE-fed mice were 5.78 and 1.47 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.61 and 1.12 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Cd137 gene expression in iWAT and eWAT of CPE-fed mice were 2.35 and 3.13 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.84 and 1.39 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Conclusions: Dietary CPE reduced but did not normalize HFD-induced body weight gain in male C57BL/6J mice, possibly by affecting energy metabolism..

Development of a cranberry standard for quantification of insoluble cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Gullickson, E. R.; Krueger, C. G.; Birmingham, A.; Maranan, M.; Reed, J. D
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 2020. 68(10):2900-2905.
Abstract: 

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) can be partitioned into soluble PACs, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PACs, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PACs because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PACs are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a cranberry PAC (c-PAC) standard, reflective of the structural heterogeneity of PACs found in cranberry fruit, to quantify insoluble PACs by the butanol-hydrochloric acid (BuOH-HCl) method. For the first time, a c-PAC standard enabled conversion of BuOH-HCl absorbance values (550 nm) to a weight (milligram) basis, allowing for quantification of insoluble PACs in cranberries. The use of the c-PAC reference standard for sequential analysis of soluble PACs by the method of 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and insoluble PACs by the method of BuOH-HCl provides analytical tools for the standardization of cranberry-based ingredients

Effect of daily consumption of cranberry beverage on insulin sensitivity and modification of cardiovascular risk factors in adults with obesity: a pilot, randomised, placebo-controlled study

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Hsia, D. S.; Zhang, D. J.; Beyl, R. S.; Greenway, F. L.; Khoo, C..
Journal: 
British Journal of Nutrition; 2020. 124(6):577-585
Abstract: 

Cranberries are high in polyphenols, and epidemiological studies have shown that a high-polyphenol diet may reduce risk factors for diabetes and CVD. The present study aimed to determine if short-term cranberry beverage consumption would improve insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-five individuals with obesity and with elevated fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed pilot trial. Participants consumed 450 ml of low-energy cranberry beverage or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Changes in insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors including vascular reactivity, blood pressure, RMR, glucose tolerance, lipid profiles and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. Change in insulin sensitivity via hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was not different between the two groups. Levels of 8-isoprostane (biomarker of lipid peroxidation) decreased in the cranberry group but increased in the placebo group (-2.18 v. +20.81 pg/ml; P = 0.02). When stratified by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, participants with high CRP levels (>4 mg/l) benefited more from cranberry consumption. In this group, significant differences in the mean change from baseline between the cranberry (n 10) and the placebo groups (n 7) in levels of TAG (-13.75 v. +10.32%; P = 0.04), nitrate (+3.26 v. -6.28 micro mol/l; P = 0.02) and 8-isoprostane (+0.32 v. +30.8 pg/ml; P = 0.05) were observed. These findings indicate that 8 weeks of daily cranberry beverage consumption may not impact insulin sensitivity but may be helpful in lowering TAG and changing certain oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with obesity and a proinflammatory state

Identifying cranberry juice consumers with predictive OPLS-DA models of plasma metabolome and validation of cranberry juice intake biomarkers in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhao ShaoMin; Liu HaiYan; Su ZhiHua; Khoo, C.; Gu LiWei.
Journal: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research; 2020. 64(11).
Abstract: 

Scope: Methods to verify cranberry juice consumption are lacking. Predictive multivariate models built upon validated biomarkers may help to verify human consumption of a food using a nutrimetabolomics approach. Methods: A 21-day double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted among healthy young women aged 1829. Plasma was collected at baseline and after 3-day and 21-day consumption of cranberry or placebo juice. Plasma metabolome was analyzed using UHPLC coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Results: 18 discriminant metabolites in positive mode and 18 discriminant metabolites in negative mode from a previous 3-day open-label study were re-discovered in the present blinded study. Predictive orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were able to identify cranberry juice consumers over a placebo juice group with 96.9% correction rates after 3-day consumption in both positive and negative mode. This present study revealed 84 and 109 additional discriminant metabolites in positive and negative mode, respectively. Twelve of them were tentatively identified. Conclusion: Cranberry juice consumers were classified with high correction rates using predictive OPLS-DA models built upon validated plasma biomarkers. Additional biomarkers were tentatively identified. These OPLS-DA models and biomarkers provided an objective approach to verify participant compliance in future clinical trials..

Oligosaccharides and complex carbohydrates: A new paradigm for cranberry Bioactivity

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Coleman, C. M.; Ferreira, D
Journal: 
Molecules; 2020. 25(4).
Abstract: 

Cranberry is a well-known functional food, but the compounds directly responsible for many of its reported health benefits remain unidentified. Complex carbohydrates, specifically xyloglucan and pectic oligosaccharides, are the newest recognized class of biologically active compounds identified in cranberry materials. Cranberry oligosaccharides have shown similar biological properties as other dietary oligosaccharides, including effects on bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and microbial growth. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity has also been observed. Oligosaccharides may therefore be significant contributors to many of the health benefits associated with cranberry products. Soluble oligosaccharides are present at relatively high concentrations (~20% w/w or greater) in many cranberry materials, and yet their possible contributions to biological activity have remained unrecognized. This is partly due to the inherent difficulty of detecting these compounds without intentionally seeking them. Inconsistencies in product descriptions and terminology have led to additional confusion regarding cranberry product composition and the possible presence of oligosaccharides. This review will present our current understanding of cranberry oligosaccharides and will discuss their occurrence, structures, ADME, biological properties, and possible prebiotic effects for both gut and urinary tract microbiota. Our hope is that future investigators will consider these compounds as possible significant contributors to the observed biological effects of cranberry

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