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Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Compounds of Vitamin C-Rich Juices.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Nowak, D. Goslinski, M. Wojtowicz, E. Przygonski, K.
Journal: 
Journal of Food Science. 83(8):2237-2246.
Abstract: 

Many studies have shown that bioactive compounds, for example, polyphenols, and so on can play an important role in reducing oxidative stress and protect against various diseases. The sources of these compounds in the human diet include mainly fruit and good quality fruit juices, which may contain polyphenols but also other phytochemicals such as vitamin C. The purpose of the study was to analyze the antioxidant properties of vitamin C-rich juices, which underwent mild processing. The content of total polyphenols (TP, FBBB), total flavonoids (TF), total anthocyanins (TA), and vitamin C as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS) were evaluated in commercial fruit juices rich in vitamin C (acerola, gojiberry, sea buckthorn, wild rose, cranberry, Japanese quince). Moreover, phenolic acids and selected flavonoids were determined by HPLC methods. Among the examined fruit juices, acerola and wild rose juices contained the highest amounts of vitamin C and total polyphenols, and had the highest antioxidant capacity. Acerola owes its high antioxidant properties mainly to vitamin C, whereas the antioxidant capacity of wild rose is also attributed to its rich content of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Sea buckthorn juice and Japanese quince juice had a lower antioxidant capacity, yet higher than determined for gojiberry and cranberry juices. Total anthocyanins were the highest in cranberry juice. The results showed that the analyzed juices were a valuable source of natural antioxidants. Generally, vitamin C-rich juices are also good source of polyphenols. Vitamin C and polyphenols act synergistically and define the antioxidant properties of juices.

BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY: AN IN-VITRO STUDY

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Krishnaeswari V, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar J
Journal: 
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(1).438-44
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain many bioactive compounds and have some biological activities and beneficial health properties. This study aimed to screen phytochemicals of cranberry fruits from the different solvent, to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content of cranberry fruits and their antioxidant effect in-vitro by DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening of various extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether of cranberry fruit extracts, revealed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, coumarins, terpenoids, and betacyanin. The cranberry extracts were evaluated for phenol and flavonoid content with Gallic acid (GA) and Quercetin (Q) as standard. The optimum yield of phenol and flavonoid content were found in ethanol fruit extract 13.07 mg Gallic acid Equivalents (GAE)/g and 9.02 mg Quercetin Equivalents (QE)/g of cranberry. The cranberry extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities by DPPH (1,1– diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Among five different solvents used, maximum antioxidant activity was found in ethanolic fruit extract (81.4%) followed by others. The IC50 values of ethanolic cranberry extract in superoxide radical scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay are 61.1 µg/ml and 54.7 µg/ml. The IC50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the extracts. The powerful antioxidant effect attributed to the greater amount of phenol and flavonoid compound in the ethanolic cranberry extract.

Comparative Evaluation of Grape Seed and Cranberry Extracts in Preventing Enamel Erosion: An Optical Emission Spectrometric Analysis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Nandakumar M, Nasim I.
Journal: 
J Conserv Dent. 2018 Sep-Oct;21(5):516-520. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_110_18.
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION:Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth structure due to chemical process that does not involve bacteria. The management of such a condition calls for a comprehensive approach to identifying the cause and treating it.AIM:The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the role of grape seed extract (GSE) and cranberry extract (CE) in preventing dental erosion using optical emission spectrometry.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Prepared enamel specimens were subjected to the erosive challenge using HCl for 10 s, followed by immersion in experimental natural groups and control fluoride group for 30 s and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated three times. The amounts of calcium and phosphorous present in the acid solution after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were determined for each group using induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.RESULTS:The cumulative calcium and phosphorous release after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were found to be the least in SnF2 group, followed by GSE group and then in CE group.CONCLUSION:The protective of GSE and CE was inferior to the gold standard control group of stannous fluoride role, against enamel erosion. GSE showed better remineralizing effect; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Cranberries Attenuate Animal-Based Diet-Induced Changes in Microbiota Composition and Functionality: a Randomized Crossover Controlled Feeding Trial.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Morato, J. Matthan, N. R. Liu Jin Torre, R. de la Chen, C. Y. O.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 62:76-86.
Abstract: 

Cranberries have multiple health effects but their impact on gut microbiota has not been examined in randomized controlled feeding trials. We evaluated the relationship between the microbiota and cranberries in the context of an animal-based diet. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, controlled design trial, 11 healthy adults consumed for 5 days each a control diet (animal-based diet plus 30 g/day placebo powder) and a cranberry diet (animal-based diet plus 30 g/day freeze-dried whole cranberry powder). The animal-based diet included meats, dairy products, and simple sugars. Stool, urine, and blood samples were obtained before and after each intervention phase. As compared to the pre-control diet, control diet modified 46 taxonomic clades, including an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes and decrease in Bacteroidetes. Moreover, it increased bacteria-derived deoxycholic acid and decreased acetate and butyrate in stool. As compared to the post-intervention phase of control diet, the cranberry diet modified 9 taxonomic clades, including a decrease in the abundance of Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. Further, the cranberry diet attenuated control diet-induced increase in secondary bile acids and decrease in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and increased urinary anthocyanins and bacterially derived phenolic acids. No changes were found in fecal trimethylamine and plasma cytokines. In conclusion, an animal-based diet altered the microbiota composition to a less favorable profile, increased carcinogenic bile acids, and decreased beneficial SCFA. Cranberries attenuated the impact of the animal-based diet on microbiota composition, bile acids, and SCFA, evidencing their capacity to modulate the gut microbiota.

Effect of Vaccinium Macrocarpon on MK-801-Induced Psychosis in Mice.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Shukla D, Maheshwari RA, Patel K, Balaraman R, Sen AK.
Journal: 
Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Sep-Oct;50(5):227-235. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_74_17.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous cranberry extract (ACE) on MK-801-induced psychosis in mice.MATERIALS AND METHODS:MK-801-treated mice were administered ACE (1 and 2 g/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. Various behavioral parameters and neurochemical estimations such as dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and glycine as well as markers of oxidative stress such as nitrite levels were measured.RESULTS:Psychosis-induced mice showed a significant elevation of immobility time in forced swim test, locomotor activity, and reduction in time of permanency in rota-rod test, escape latency time in Cook's pole test while treatment with ACE showed a significant alteration in above-mentioned behavioral parameters in MK-801-induced psychosis. Moreover, MK-801-induced psychosis in the mice showed a significant increase in DA, 5-HT, and NA levels and decrease in GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the brain. In contrast, treatment with ACE at both doses remarkably altered the neurochemical parameters. In addition, ACE-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in acetylcholinesterase, D-amino acid oxidase enzyme activity, and nitrite levels which were elevated by the administration of MK-801.CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with ACE once for 14 days (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly ameliorated the behavioral symptoms in experimentally induced psychosis by virtue of neuromodulation and decreased oxidative stress.

Oral Health Benefits of Cranberry: A Review

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
B Alexander, S John
Journal: 
IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) Volume 18, Issue 1 Ver. 2 (January. 2019), PP 41-44
Abstract: 

Cranberry has a unique combination of phytochemicals which are used for treatment of various systemic diseases including oral diseases like caries,periodontitis and oral cancer. Many in vitro studies have outlined the potential health benefits of cranberry but in vivo studies are still inconclusive. Cranberry inhibit acid production, attachment and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans thereby being an effective anticaries agent. It also inhibits host inflammatory response and adherance of periodontal pathogens on tooth surfaces. Proanthocyanidins in cranberries demonstrate significant cancer prevention. The review aims to well into the potential benefits of cranberry in improving oral health as well as a peep into the still unexplored facets of natural medicaments in oral disease prevention.

Some New Findings Regarding the Antiadhesive Activity of Cranberry Phenolic Compounds and Their Microbial-Derived Metabolites against Uropathogenic Bacteria.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
González de Llano D, Liu H, Khoo C, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolomé B.
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Feb 12. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05625
Abstract: 

Findings concerning the antiadhesive activity of cranberry phenolic compounds and their microbial-derived metabolites against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ATCC 53503 and DSM 10791) and Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis 04-1) bacteria in T24 cells are reported. A-Type procyanidins (A2 and cinnamtannin B-1) exhibited antiadhesive activity (at concentrations ≥250 μM), a feature that was not observed for B-type procyanidins (B2). The metabolites hippuric acid and α-hydroxyhippuric acid also showed effective results at concentrations ≥250 μM. With regard to conjugated metabolites, sulfation seemed to increase the antiadhesive activity of cranberry-derived metabolites as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid 3- O-sulfate presented active results, unlike its corresponding nonsulfated form. In contrast, methylation decreased antiadhesive activity as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was found to be active but not its corresponding methylated form (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid). As a whole, this work sustains the antiadhesive activity of cranberry-derived metabolites as one of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of cranberries against urinary tract infections.

Advantages of a Validated UPLC-MS/MS Standard Addition Method for the Quantification of A-Type Dimeric and Trimeric Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry Extracts in Comparison with Well-Known Quantification Methods.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Dooren, I. van Foubert, K. Theunis, M. Naessens, T. Pieters, L. Apers, S.
Journal: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis;148:32-41.
Abstract: 

The berries of Vaccinium macrocarpon, cranberry, are widely used for the prevention of urinary tract infections. This species contains A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs), which intervene in the initial phase of the development of urinary tract infections by preventing the adherence of Escherichia coli by their P-type fimbriae to uroepithelial cells. Unfortunately, the existing clinical studies used different cranberry preparations, which were poorly standardized. Because of this, the results were hard to compare, which led sometimes to conflicting results. Currently, PACs are quantified using the rather non-specific spectrophotometric 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) method. In addition, a normal phase HPTLC-densitometric method, a HPLC-UV method and three LC-MS/MS methods for quantification of procyanidin A2 were recently published. All these methods contain some shortcomings and errors. Hence, the development and validation of a fast and sensitive standard addition LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of A-type dimers and trimers in a cranberry dry extract was carried out. A linear calibration model could be adopted for dimers and, after logarithmic transformation, for trimers. The maximal interday and interconcentration precision was found to be 4.86% and 4.28% for procyanidin A2, and 5.61% and 7.65% for trimeric PACs, which are all acceptable values for an analytical method using LC-MS/MS. In addition, twelve different cranberry extracts were analyzed by means of the newly validated method and other widely used methods. There appeared to be an enormous variation in dimeric and trimeric PAC content. Comparison of these results with LC-MS/MS analysis without standard addition showed the presence of matrix effects for some of the extracts and proved the necessity of standard addition. A comparison of the well-known and widely used DMAC method, the butanol-HCl assay and this newly developed LC-MS/MS method clearly indicated the need for a reliable method able to quantify A-type PACs, which are considered to be the pharmacologically active constituents of cranberry, since neither the DMAC or butanol-HCl assays are capable of distinguishing between A and B-type PACs and therefore cannot detect adulterations with, for example, extracts with a high B-type PAC content. Hence, the combination of the DMAC method or butanol-HCl assay with this more specific LC-MS/MS assay could overcome these shortcomings.

American Cranberries and Health Benefits - An Evolving Story of 25 Years.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Zhao S; Liu H; Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 10.1002/jsfa.8882 [doi]
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health.

Consumption of Cranberry Functional Beverage Reduces Gingival Index and Plaque Index in Patients with Gingivitis.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Wozniewicz M,Nowaczyk PM, Kurhanska-Flisykowska A, Wyganowska-Swiątkowska M, Lasik-Kurdys M, Walkowiak J, Bajerska J
Journal: 
Nutrition Research 58:36-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.06.011
Abstract: 

Periodontal disease is highly prevalent worldwide, and consumption of certain foods, such as fruits, seem to improve the effectiveness of periodontal therapy (PT) due to their antiadhesive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties. We hypothesized that the cranberry functional beverage (CFB) consumed for eight weeks improves gingival inflammation indices via inhibition of dental plaque, and alterations in antioxidant status, and systemic inflammation in patients with gingivitis. In this two-arm randomized controlled study, fifty participants were divided into an experimental group (CFB), administered daily with 750 ml CFB, or a control group administered the same amount of water. All patients underwent nonsurgical PT prior to the intervention. Gingival (GI) and bleeding on probing (BoP) indices of inflammation, plaque (PI) and approximal plaque (API) indices of dental plaque deposition, saliva and serum total antioxidant status (TAS), serum malonylodialdehyde level (MDA), and interleukin 1-beta level (IL-1beta) were measured pre- and postintervention. A risk of caries development was determined by Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus spp. (LAB) counts in supragingival dental plaque. Changes in GI and PI but not BoP and API were significantly more pronounced in the CFB group compared to the control group. Serum or saliva TAS, IL-1beta, and MDA did not differ between groups. The number of SM reduced in CFB, but not in the control group. We demonstrated that the consumption of CFB improves gingival and plaque indices without posing a risk of caries development. Thus CFB can be recommended as a safe adjunct for nonsurgical PT in patients with gingivitis.

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