Cranberry proanthocyanidins composite electrospun nanofibers as a potential alternative for bacterial entrapment applications
The interaction between A-type interflavan bonds from cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) and surface virulence factors of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) was studied. Electrospun nanofibers (ESNF) were fabricated using PAC and polycaprolactone (PCL) solutions and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. The ability of PAC:PCL composite ESNF to interact with and entrap ExPEC strain 5011 (ExPEC-5011) was evaluated in vitro by plate culturing and when formulated as a biofilter and nanocoating. As a biofilter, the PAC:PCL ESNF exhibited a dose-dependent ability to entrap ExPEC-5011. Images from scanning electron and fluorescent microscopies revealed that ESNF sections with higher amounts of PAC led to higher bacterial entrapment. The effectiveness PAC:PCL ESNF to bind ExPEC when applied as a nanocoating was studied using ESNF-coated polyvinyl chloride intermittent catheter. Results indicate that ExPEC-5011 was entrapped well into the PAC:PCL ESNF coating on the catheter. Overall, our results suggest that incorporating the biomolecule PAC in ESNF is a potential means for applications requiring bacterial entrapment, such as biofunctionalization, biofiltration, and surface coating, among others.