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2021

Displaying 1 - 10 of 31

A Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Different Mouthrinses against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Abu-Obaid E; Salama F; Abu-Obaid A; Alanazi F; Salem M; Auda S; Al Khadra T.
Journal: 
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 21(5):500-508, 2020 May 01.
Abstract: 

AIM: To assess the antimicrobial effects of natural and semi-natural mouthrinses on isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus casei obtained from the saliva samples and their reference strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Natural and semi-natural mouthrinses included in this study were herbal mix mouthrinse, cranberry mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, cranberry extract mixed with chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse with alcohol (positive control), and distilled water (negative control). The microbiological examination tests were minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and zone of inhibition test for the saliva isolates of S. mutans, L. fermentum, and L. casei while zone of inhibition test only for their reference strains. RESULT: Compared with distilled water, herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine with alcohol (+), and chlorhexidine mouthrinses were associated with a significant increase of the zone of inhibition 34.354, 34.255, 34.219, 10.801, and 9.386, respectively. Both MIC and MBC were significantly higher in the cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine than in chlorhexidine with alcohol. The MIC and MBC of mouthrinses were significantly lower in the S. mutans and L. fermentum than in L. casei. CONCLUSION: Herbal mix and cranberry mouthrinses could be effective natural alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse with or without alcohol in improving oral health. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Different mouthrinses proposed in this study showed antimicrobial effects against the tested oral pathogens, and possibly the tested mouthrinses will lead for future formulation of natural or semi-natural pharmaceutical mouthrinses.

A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects against endogenous exposure to persistent organic pollutants during weight loss in mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Choi SoYun [Choi, S. Y. B.]; Varin, T. V.; St-Pierre, P.; Pilon, G.; Tremblay, A.; Marette, A..
Journal: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology; 2020. 146.
Abstract: 

The dramatic rise in the global occurrence of obesity and associated diseases calls for new strategies to promote weight loss. However, while the beneficial effects of weight loss are well known, rapid loss of fat mass can also lead to the endogenous release of liposoluble molecules with potential harmful effects, such as persistent organic pollutants (POP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CE) on POP release and their potential deleterious effects during weight loss of obese mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed an obesogenic diet with or without a mixture of POP for 12 weeks and then changed to a low-fat diet to induce weight loss and endogenous POP release. The POP-exposed mice were then separated in two groups during weight loss, receiving either CE or the vehicle. Unexpectedly, despite the higher fat loss in the CE-treated group, the circulating levels of POP were not enhanced in these mice. Moreover, glucose homeostasis was further improved during CE-induced weight loss, as revealed by lower fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the CE extract also induced changes in the gut microbiota after weight loss in POP-exposed mice, including blooming of Parvibacter, a member of the Coriobacteriaceae family which has been predicted to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism. Our data thus suggests that the gut microbiota can be targeted by polyphenol-rich extracts to protect from increased POP exposure and their detrimental metabolic effects during rapid weight loss

American cranberries and health benefits - an evolving story of 25 years.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhao ShaoMin; Liu HaiYan; Gu LiWei.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture; 2020. 100(14):5111-5116
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health

Anti-inflammatory and macrophage polarization effects of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins (PACs) for periodontal and peri-implant disease therapy

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Galarraga-Vinueza ME; Dohle E; Ramanauskaite A; Al-Maawi S; Obreja K; Magini R; Sader R; Ghanaati S; Schwarz F.
Journal: 
Journal of Periodontal Research. 55(6):821-829, 2020 Dec
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Macrophages' cytokine expression and polarization play a substantial role in the host's "destructive" inflammatory response to periodontal and peri-implant pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate cell viability, anti-inflammatory activity, and macrophage polarization properties of different cranberry concentrates. METHODS: THP-1 cells (monocytic line) were treated with phorbol myristic acid to induce macrophage differentiation. Human gingival fibroblasts (HFIB-G cell line), osteosarcoma-derived osteoblasts (SAOS-2 cell line), and induced macrophages were treated with cranberry concentrates at 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL for 120 seconds, 1 hour and 24 hours. Untreated cells at the same time points served as controls. For anti-inflammatory analysis, induced macrophages exposed to cranberry concentrates (A-type PACs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from E coli for 24 hours. Cell viability, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1 s, IL-6, and IL-10 expression of LPS-stimulated macrophages, and macrophage polarization markers were evaluated through determination of live-cell protease activity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence staining semi-quantification. RESULTS: Cranberry concentrates (A-type PACs) did not reduce HGF, SAOS-2, and macrophage viability after 24 hours of exposure. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (ie IL-8 and IL-6) was downregulated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by cranberry concentrates at 50 and 100 microg/mL. Anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression was significantly upregulated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by cranberry concentrates at 100 microg/mL after 24 hours of exposure. M1 polarization significantly decreased when LPS-stimulated macrophages were exposed to cranberry concentrates. High levels of positive M1 macrophages were present in all untreated control groups. M2 polarization significantly increased at all LPS-stimulated macrophages exposed to cranberry concentrates for 1 and 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins may have the potential to act as an anti-inflammatory component in the therapy of periodontal and peri-implant diseases.

Antibacterial activities of a polyphenolic-rich extract prepared from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit pomace against Listeria spp.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Diarra, M. S.; Hassan, Y. I.; Block, G. S.; Drover, J. C. G.; Delaquis, P.; Oomah, B. D..
Journal: 
LWT - Food Science and Technology; 2020. 123
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruits are known for their high polyphenolics content making them a rich source of antioxidants. These polyphenolics have been reported to promote human health and are gaining attention for their antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens. We investigated the antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract (#FC111-1) prepared from cranberry pomace against Listeria spp. Many polyphenolics were identified in this extract which could be responsible for growth-inhibitory effects against 12 Listeria strains including L. monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of #FC111-1 determined in cation adjusted Muller Hinton broth (CAMHB) was approximately 2 mg/mL for 11 (91.7%) of these strains. The inclusion of 2-8 mg/mL (1-4 x MIC) of #FC111-1 decreased (>3 log10) viable bacterial cells of all Listeria strains in CAMHB over a 24 h period, while dose-dependently reducing bacterial salt tolerance, bacterial bile-salt hydrolase activity, bacterial biofilm formation capacity, and increasing cell-membrane permeability. The #FC111-1 extract (0.4 and 0.8% concentrations) had no effect on L. monocytogenes survival in a cooked chicken-breast meat model, highlighting the influence of protein-rich matrices on antibacterial activity and the need to consider the role of food composition when using extracts or polyphenolics from cranberry fruits to improve food-safety

Berry polyphenols and fibers modulate distinct microbial metabolic functions and gut microbiota enterotype-like clustering in obese mice

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Daza, M. C.; Roquim, M.; Dudonne, S.; Pilon, G.; Levy, E.; Marette, A.; Roy, D.; Desjardins, Y.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology; 2020. 11(August).
Abstract: 

Berries are rich in polyphenols and plant cell wall polysaccharides (fibers), including cellulose, hemicellulose, arabinans and arabino-xyloglucans rich pectin. Most of polyphenols and fibers are known to be poorly absorbed in the small intestine and reach the colon where they interact with the gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. This study assessed the contribution of polyphenol-rich whole cranberry and blueberry fruit powders (CP and BP), and that of their fibrous fractions (CF and BF) on modulating the gut microbiota, the microbial functional profile and influencing metabolic disorders induced by high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 8 weeks. Lean mice-associated taxa, including Akkermansia muciniphila, Dubosiella newyorkensis, and Angelakisella, were selectively induced by diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP and BP. Fiber-rich CF also triggered polyphenols-degrading families Coriobacteriaceae and Eggerthellaceae. Diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich CP, but not with its fiber-rich CF, reduced fat mass depots, body weight and energy efficiency in HFHS-fed mice. However, CF reduced liver triglycerides in HFHS-fed mice. Importantly, polyphenol-rich CP-diet normalized microbial functions to a level comparable to that of Chow-fed controls. Using multivariate association modeling, taxa and predicted functions distinguishing an obese phenotype from healthy controls and berry-treated mice were identified. The enterotype-like clustering analysis underlined the link between a long-term diet intake and the functional stratification of the gut microbiota. The supplementation of a HFHS-diet with polyphenol-rich CP drove mice gut microbiota from Firmicutes/Ruminococcus enterotype into an enterotype linked to healthier host status, which is Prevotella/Akkermansiaceae. This study highlights the prebiotic role of polyphenols, and their contribution to the compositional and functional modulation of the gut microbiota, counteracting obesity..

Bioactive Components of Polyphenol-Rich and Non-Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Fruit Extracts and Their Chemopreventive Effects on Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Wu X; Xue L; Tata A; Song M; Neto CC; Xiao H.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 68(25):6845-6853,
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various constituents relevant to human health. Our previous study demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of whole cranberry against colon cancer in mice. In order to determine the role of different cranberry secondary metabolites in inhibiting colon cancer, cranberry ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and polyphenol extract (PPE) were obtained. The free-radical scavenging activities and chemical composition of the cranberry extracts were determined. EAE consisted of triterpenes and sterols and a trace amount of proanthocyanidins. PPE mainly contained polyphenol with a trace amount of triterpenes. The chemopreventive effects of orally administered EAE and PPE on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis were determined in mice. Dietary EAE and PPE significantly suppressed tumor metrics without noticeable adverse effects. Gene expression levels of key proinflammatory cytokines were also attenuated by EAE and PPE in the mouse colon. In conclusion, the novel cranberry extracts may offer an efficacious and safe means to prevent colonic tumorigenesis in humans.

Combined cranberry supplementation and weight loss diet in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Hormoznejad, R.; Shahi, M. M.; Rahim, F.; Helli, B.; Alavinejad, P.; Sharhani, A.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition; 2020. 71(8):991-1000.
Abstract: 

A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial was conducted on 41 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were randomly allocated to receive either a cranberry supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. Both groups were assigned to follow a weight loss diet. At the end of the study, alanine aminotransferase and insulin decreased significantly in both groups (p < .05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in the cranberry group than in the placebo group (p < .05). Significant improvements in insulin resistance were observed in the cranberry group and between the two groups (p < .001 and p = .020, respectively). Also, there was an improvement in steatosis grade and anthropometric measurements in both groups (p < .05), and there was no significant difference between the two groups in regard to these factors (p > .05). It seems that 288 mg of cranberry extract might improve managing NAFLD, which is equivalent to 26 g of dried cranberry..

Cranberries (Vacciniummacrocarpon aiton) in dog nutrition: influence on diet digestibility and palatability and in the course of urinary tract infections

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Olszewski, V. R.; Bastos, T. S.; Komarcheuski, A. S.; Oliveira, S. G.; Warth, J. F. G.; Felix, A. P
Journal: 
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; 2020. 72(5):1971-1979.
Abstract: 

The objective was to evaluate the effects of cranberry on blood and urinary parameters of dogs (experiment I), digestibility of nutrients (experiment II), palatability of diet (experiment III) and the influence of cranberry on E. coli UPEC-MRHA fimbriae in vitro (experiment IV). For experiment I and II, ten dogs were fed with diets containing 0% or 0.4% cranberry for 30 days. Experiment III compared the diets containing 0% and 0.4% cranberry using 16 adult dogs. There were no statistical differences (P>0.05) in the blood parameters evaluated. Dogs consuming cranberry presented lighter color and appearance of urine, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The diet containing cranberry showed higher digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, higher metabolizable energy (P<0.05) and reduced fecal sialic acid concentration (P<0.05) compared to the control diet. There was no influence of cranberry on the formation of fimbriae of E. coli UPEC-MRHA. There was a lower intake ratio of the diet containing cranberry (P<0.05). The inclusion of 0.4% cranberry increases the digestibility of nutrients and influences the color and appearance of urine of dogs. However, it reduces diet palatability and does not alter the adhesion of E. coli UPEC-MRHA in vitro..

Cranberries after pelvic floor surgery for urinary tract infection prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Mooren ES; Liefers WJ; de Leeuw JW
Journal: 
Neurourology & Urodynamics. 39(5):1543-1549,
Abstract: 

AIMS: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication after pelvic floor surgery. Antibiotics as prophylaxis may reduce the prevalence of UTI's by 50%, but bacterial resistance may be a large disadvantage, necessitating the search for other possible prophylactic options. Recent research found a 50% reduction in the rate of UTI's with the use of cranberry capsules after elective gynecologic surgery, suggesting that cranberry capsules may serve as a good prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to assess whether perioperative cranberry prophylaxis reduces the risk of clinical overt UTI after elective pelvic floor surgery with indwelling catheter. METHODS: We conducted a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women were given cranberry capsules twice daily or identical placebo for 6 weeks, starting the day before surgery. The main endpoint of the trial was the incidence of UTI within 6 weeks after surgery, defined as clinical diagnosis and treatment of UTI by the medical doctor. Analyses were performed with the intention to treat. RESULTS: Two hundred ten participants were included, 105 in each arm. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of UTI between the cranberry arm (n = 13, 12.4%) and the placebo arm (n = 21, 20.0%; P = .13), but the prevalence in both arms was lower than anticipated. CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows no beneficial effect of adequately dosed cranberry prophylaxis in women undergoing pelvic floor surgery, although such effect cannot be ruled out in settings with a higher prevalence of UTI's.

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