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2010

Displaying 1 - 10 of 217

Chemopreventive potential of cranberries on azoxymethane induced aberrant crypt foci in Fisher 344 male rats

Posted: 
December 17, 2010
Authors: 
Sunkara R, Verghese M, Panala V, Field R, Boateng J, Shackelford L. A. and Walker, L. T.
Journal: 
Int J Canc Res 4 (2):52-60
Abstract: 

In this study, the chemopreventive potential of Cranberry was analyzed in reducing the Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) induced by Azoxymethane (AOM) in Fisher 344 male rats. After 1 week period of acclimatization, rats were divided into five different groups. Cranberry meal was mixed in an AIN 93G based diet at 5 and 10% and juice was provided at 2.5 and 5%. Daily feed intake and weekly body weights were recorded. At 17 week of age, rats were killed and samples were collected. Number of ACF and number of crypts/foci were enumerated in the colon. There were no significant differences in feed intake, weight gain, cecal weight and cecal pH among all groups. Total ACF incidence (119) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in control group than in treatment groups. Reduction in total ACF induction was higher in rats fed 10% Cranberry (65.75%) compared to control. A two to six fold increase in selected hepatic enzymes activities (units/mg enzyme) were seen in rats fed 5 and 10% treatment diets compared to control. Results of this study showed that administration of Cranberry meal and juice resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions in the incidence of ACF in azoxymethane induced preneoplastic lesions.

Cranberry synergies for dietary management of Helicobacter pylori infections

Posted: 
December 17, 2010
Authors: 
Vattem DA, Lin YT, Ghaedian R, Shetty K
Journal: 
Process Biochem 40(5):1583-1592
Abstract: 

Cranberry and its products are important components of the cranberry processing industry and have historically been associated with positive health benefits such as preventing urinary tract infections. These health benefits are associated with phenolic phytochemicals in the juice which are now known to have potential for inhibition of development and progression of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen linked to peptic ulcer and now to cardiovascular diseases. Control of this pathogen using synthetic antimicrobials such as currently approved antibiotics has limitations due to potential development of resistance and low compliance. We believe a profile of antimicrobials compared to a single compound could be potentially more effective in managing H. pylori infections. We have investigated the effect of cranberry, blueberry and grape seed extracts on inhibiting H. pylori have been investigated. The ability of blueberry, grape seed and oregano extract on enhancing the antioxidant and anti-H. pylori activity of cranberry powder in a mixture was also investigated. The anti-H. pylori activity of the cranberry fruit extracts and their synergies correlated with antioxidant activity and the presence of biphenyls as well as polyphenolic phytochemicals. The anti-H. pylori activity of cranberry juice extract was significantly improved by its synergistic blending with blueberry, grape seed and oregano extract. The lower efficacy of purified phenolics in inhibiting H. pylori compared with fruit powder at similar dosage levels suggests a synergistic mode of functionality of these individual phenolics in whole food background. Consumption of blends of fruit juices with other fruit as well as herb extracts can impart unique functional attributes and could be an effective strategy in developing diet-based management of H. pylori infections as well as other oxidation linked diseases.

Inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenols on formation and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

Posted: 
December 17, 2010
Authors: 
Duarte S, Gregoire S, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Schaich K, Bowen WH, Koo H
Journal: 
FEMS Microbiol Lett 257(1):50-56
Abstract: 

Cranberry fruit is a rich source of polyphenols, and has shown biological activities against Streptococcus mutans. In the present study, we examined the influence of extracts of flavonols (FLAV), anthocyanins (A) and proanthocyanidins (PAC) from cranberry on virulence factors involved in Streptococcus mutans biofilm development and acidogenicity. PAC and FLAV, alone or in combination, inhibited the surface-adsorbed glucosyltransferases and F-ATPases activities, and the acid production by S. mutans cells. Furthermore, biofilm development and acidogenicity were significantly affected by topical applications of PAC and FLAV (P

Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects1

Posted: 
December 17, 2010
Authors: 
Abdul MJM, Jiang X, Williams KM, Day RO, Roufogalis BD, Liauw WS, Xu H, McLachlan AJ.
Journal: 
Br J Pharmacol 154(8):1691-1700
Abstract: 

Background and purpose: Patients commonly take complementary medicines in conjunction with warfarin yet evidence supporting the safety or the risk of a herb–drug interaction is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of two commonly used herbal medicines, garlic and cranberry, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy male subjects. Experimental approach: An open-label, three-treatment, randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken and involved 12 healthy male subjects of known CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype. A single dose of 25mg warfarin was administered alone or after 2 weeks of pretreatment with either garlic or cranberry. Warfarin enantiomer concentrations, INR, platelet aggregation and clotting factor activity were measured to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and herbal medicines. Key results: Cranberry significantly increased the area under the INR–time curve by 30% when administered with warfarin compared with treatment with warfarin alone. Cranberry did not alter S- or R-warfarin pharmacokinetics or plasma protein binding. Co-administration of garlic did not significantly alter warfarin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Both herbal medicines showed some evidence of VKORC1 (not CYP2C9) genotype-dependent interactions with warfarin, which is worthy of further investigation.Conclusions and implications: Cranberry alters the pharmacodynamics of warfarin with the potential to increase its effectssignificantly. Co-administration of warfarin and cranberry requires careful monitoring.

Synergism of cranberry phenolics with ellagic acid and rosmarinic acid for antimutagenic and DNA protection functions

Posted: 
December 17, 2010
Authors: 
Vattem DA, Jang HD, Levin R, Shetty K
Journal: 
J Food Biochem 30(1):98-116
Abstract: 

Several studies have shown the antimutagenic DNA protective functions of some naturally occurring phenolic phytochemicals. Emerging research also indicates that synergistic functionality of these phytochemicals in whole foods benefits the management of many diseases. This study investigated the potential antimutagenic properties of cranberry phenolics, ellagic acid (EA), rosmarinic acid (RA) and their synergistic interactions on enhancing the antimutagenic properties in Salmonella typhimurium tester system against the mutagens sodium azide and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The ability of these phytochemical treatments to protect oxidative damage to DNA was also investigated using the supercoiled DNA strand scission assay. The results showed that EA was most effective in inhibiting the mutations in S. typhimurium system, whereas RA and EA were equally effective in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage. In addition, the antimutagenic activity of cranberry powder (CP) made from juice extracts was significantly enhanced when 30% (w/w) of phenolics in CP was substituted with RA and EA, possibly because of synergistic redox modulation that can influence mutagen function. It was also suggested that the synergistic mixture of cranberry phenolics with RA could also be protecting the cell from mutations by modulating the DNA repair systems

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
McGuinness SD, Krone R, Metz LM, et al
Journal: 
J Neurosci Nurs 34(1):4-7
Abstract: 

Cranberry cocktail has been reported to reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women and self-reported urinary tract infection (UTI) in young female undergraduates, but commercially prepared cranberry concentrate supplements have never been evaluated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one 8,000-mg cranberry concentrate supplement daily could prevent UTI in MS participants with bladder symptoms. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled longitudinal trial of cranberry supplement versus placebo with participants who have MS. After informed consent had been obtained from the participants, baseline data were collected and participants were randomized to receive either one cranberry supplement or placebo daily for 6 months. The sample consisted of 135 participants. In the cranberry group 34.6% of participants failed (i.e., developed a UTI) versus 32.4% in the control group (p = .849). Not all cranberry supplements have been found to contain proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient of cranberries. Because there is no way for the consumer to distinguish supplements that contain proanthocyanidins from those that do not, taking juice or whole cranberries may be preferrable.

Cranberry extract and quercetin modulate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and I kappa B alpha in human colon cancer cells

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
Narayansingh R, Hurta RAR
Journal: 
J Sci Food Agr 89(3):542-547
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cranberry (Vaccinium marcocarpon) fruit and quercetin, a major flavonoid found in cranberries, are likely contributors to chemoprevention, and their anti-inflammatory activities may play a potential role in colon cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cranberry extract and quercetin on basal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IκBα as well as the effect on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced COX-2 expression in colon cancer cells.
RESULTS: HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of cranberry extract or quercetin and/or PMA, and the protein expression of COX-2 and IκBα was determined. The results indicated that cranberry extract and quercetin decreased COX-2 expression and suppressed degradation of IκBα in unstimulated cells. In PMA-stimulated cells, cranberry extract was also able to decrease COX-2 expression and suppress degradation of IκBα.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a possible mechanism involved in the anti-cancer activity of cranberry and quercetin is partly mediated through its anti-inflammatory action. These findings indicate that cranberry and quercetin may reduce the risk of colon cancer possibly by suppressing inflammatory responses.

Effects of cranberry extracts and ursolic acid derivatives on P-fimbriated Escherichia coli, COX-2 activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and the NF-kappabeta transcriptional response in vitro

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
Huang Y, Nikolic D, Pendland S, Doyle BJ, Locklear TD, Mahady GB
Journal: 
Pharmaceut Biol 47(1):18-25
Abstract: 

Cranberry, the fresh or dried ripe fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae), is currently used as adjunct therapy for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of urinary tract infections. Data from clinical trials suggest that extracts of cranberry or cranberry juice reduce the bacterial load of E. coli and also suppress the inflammatory symptoms induced by E. coli infections. A methanol extract prepared from 10 kg of dehydrated cranberries did not directly inhibit the growth of E coli strains ATCC 700336 or ATCC 25922 in concentrations up to 256 mug/mL in vitro. However, the methanol extract (CR-ME) inhibited the activity of cyclooxygenase-2, with an IC(50) of 12.8 mug/mL. Moreover, CR-ME also inhibited the NF-kappabeta transcriptional activation in human T lymphocytes with an IC(50) of 19.4 mug/mL, and significantly (p

Effects of ginger and cranberry

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
Liburt NR, McKeever KH, Streltsova JM, Franke WC, Gordon ME, Filho HCM, Horohov DW, Rosen RT, Ho CT, Singh AP, Vorsa N.
Journal: 
Comp Exerc Physiol 6(4):157-169
Abstract: 

This study hypothesized that ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts would alter the physiological response to exercise as well as markers of muscle damage, and mRNA expression for the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interferon-g (IFN-g) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after an exhaustive bout of exercise in horses. Nine unfit Standardbred mares (age 10 ^ 4 years, ,450 kg) completed three graded exercise tests (GXTs) in a crossover design, where they were assigned to the initial order of treatment in a randomized fashion. The GXTs were conducted between 07.00 and 12.00 hours, 7 days apart. Mares received either water (2 l), cranberry (,30 g in 2 l of water) or ginger (,30 g in 2 l of water) extract 1 h prior to testing. Blood samples were taken prior to dosing (pre-exercise), at the end of each step of the GXT, at the end of the exercise and at 2, 5 and 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post-GXT. Plasma total protein (TP) concentration and haematocrit (HCT) were analysed immediately following the tests. Analysis of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was done commercially. There was no effect of treatment (P > 0.05) on VO2max, run-time to fatigue, core temperature, TP or HCT. CK was substantially elevated (P 0.05) was noted in AST. A slight increase (P 0.05) was seen on IL-6 mRNA expression. Results suggest that cranberry extract blunts the upregulation and expression of TNF-a mRNA, while ginger extract reduces cardiovascular recovery time in horses completing a short, exhaustive bout of exercise.

Cranberry Juice Fails to Prevent Recurrent

Posted: 
December 12, 2010
Authors: 
Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, Zhang L, DeBusscher J,Foxman B
Journal: 
Clin Infect Dis 52(1):23–30
Abstract: 

Background. A number of observational studies and a few small or open randomized clinical trials suggest that
the American cranberry may decrease incidence of recurring urinary tract infection (UTI).
Methods. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of cranberry on risk of recurring
UTI among 319 college women presenting with an acute UTI. Participants were followed up until a second UTI or
for 6 months, whichever came first. A UTI was defined on the basis of the combination of symptoms and a urine
culture positive for a known uropathogen. The study was designed to detect a 2-fold difference between treated and
placebo groups, as was detected in unblinded trials. We assumed 30% of participants would experience a UTI during
the follow-up period.
Results. Overall, the recurrence rate was 16.9% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%–21.0%), and the distribution
of the recurrences was similar between study groups, with the active cranberry group presenting a slightly higher
recurrence rate (20.0% vs 14.0%). The presence of urinary symptoms at 3 days, 1–2 weeks, and at >1 month was
similar between study groups, with overall no marked differences.
Conclusions. Among otherwise healthy college women with an acute UTI, those drinking 8 oz of 27% cranberry
juice twice daily did not experience a decrease in the 6-month incidence of a second UTI, compared with those
drinking a placebo.

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