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2010

Displaying 21 - 30 of 217

Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Jackson B, Hicks LE
Journal: 
Home Healthc Nurse 15(3):198-202
Abstract: 

Most research suggests that ingestion of cranberry juice may be useful in preventing urinary tract infections. This pilot study examines the effect of drinking moderate amounts of commercially available cranberry juice cocktail on urinary pH in older, institutionalized adults. The results of the study have implications for home care nurses who have similar patients in their case loads.

Effect of cranberry juice on urine

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kahn HD, Panariello VA, Saeli J, Sampson JR, Schwartz E
Journal: 
J Am Diet Assoc 51(3):251-4
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effect of cranberry juice ingestion on urinary acidification and calcium excretion, in a diet-controlled situation.

Effect of diet on serum accumulation and renal excretion of aryl acids and secretory activity in normal and uremic man

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Cathcart-Rake W, Porter R, Whittier F, Stein P, Carey M, Grantham J
Journal: 
Am J Clin Nutr 28(10):1110-5
Abstract: 

The influence of diet on aryl acid metabolism was determined in normal and azotemic subjects. Aryl acid content of serum and urine was estimated by fluorometry in relation to hippuric acid as a standard (FI-Hipp). Secretory activity, a reflection of the biological potency of aromatic acids in serum and urine, was determined by bioassay. The urinary excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity of five normal persons on an ad lib diet was 0.78 and 2.25 mM/day, respectively; similar values were observed in two subjects with chronic renal insufficiency. Subjects were fed prunes and cranberries, since these foods contain abundant quantities of hippurate precursors. Prunes 1.5 g/kg body weight, caused the urinary excretion of both FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about tenfold in normal and azotemic subjects. Prune feeding caused the serum levels of FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about threefold. Cranberries increased the renal excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity as did the ingestion of a beverage containing benzoate as a preservative. On the basis of these studies it is clear that diet is an important determinant of the load of aryl acids for urinary excretion; in patients with renal insufficiency the ingestion of foods containing precursors may cause serum level of biologically active aryl acids to increase strikingly.

Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Jung HN, Kim KN, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Nutr Res Pract 2(3):158-64
Abstract: 

This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.

Impact of cranberry juice and proanthocyanidins (PACs) on the zeta potentials of Escherichia coli and uroepithelial cells

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Liu YT, Pinzon-Arango PA, Camesano TA, Patil B, Murano P, Amiot-Carlin MJ
Journal: 
Acta Hort 841:259-264
Abstract: 

Bacterial surface properties, such as electrostatic potential play an important role in the bacterial adhesion process, which is widely considered as the first step leading to infections. Cranberry juice and its compound A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) were used to treat two isogenic E. coli strains and human uroepithelial cells and the zeta potentials were measured at several cranberry juice or PACs concentrations. P fimbriae were shown to be slightly positively charged, which helps bacteria adhere onto mammalian cells. PACs significantly decreased the bacterial zeta potentials from -15.6 ± 0.9 mV to -41.5 ± 0.7 mV, which increased the electrostatic repulsion forces to mammalian cells. Cranberry juice treatment did not change bacterial zeta potentials significantly, ranging from -14.9 ± 1.8 mV to -16.3 ± 0.8 mV. The abundance of other compounds in cranberry juice may have blocked the influence of PACs, considering the relatively small proportion of PACs in cranberry juice.

In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA
Journal: 
Planta Med 62(3):212-6
Abstract: 

Fruit extracts of four Vaccinium species (lowbush blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) were screened for anticarcinogenic compounds by a combination of fractionation and in vitro testing of their ability to induce the Phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR) and to inhibit the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, by the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). The crude extracts, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin fractions were not highly active in QR induction whereas the ethyl acetate extracts were active QR inducers. The concentrations required to double QR activity (designated CDqr) for the ethyl acetate extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, lingonberry, and bilberry were 4.2, 3.7, 1.3, and 1.0 microgram tannic acid equivalents (TAE), respectively, Further fractionation of the bilberry ethyl acetate extract revealed that the majority of inducer potency was contained in a hexane/chloroform subfraction (CDqr = 0.07 microgram TAE). In contrast to their effects on QR, crude extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry were active inhibitors of ODC activity. The concentrations of these crude extracts needed to inhibit ODC activity by 50% (designated IC50) were 8.0, 7.0, and 9.0 micrograms TAE, respectively. The greatest activity in these extracts appeared to be contained in the polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions of the lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry fruits (IC50 = 3.0, 6.0, and 5.0 micrograms TAE, respectively). The anthocyanidin and ethyl acetate extracts of the four Vaccinium species were either inactive or relatively weak inhibitors of ODC activity. Thus, components of the hexane/chloroform fraction of bilberry and of the proanthocyanidin fraction of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry exhibit potential anticarcinogenic activity as evaluated by in vitro screening tests.

In vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris)

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kahlon TS, Smith GE
Journal: 
Food Chem 100(3):1182-1187
Abstract: 

The in vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia) cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted to testing various fresh raw fruits on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter (DM), total dietary fibre (TDF) and total polysaccharides (PCH) basis was for blueberries 7%, 47% and 25%; plums 6%, 53% and 50%; prunes 5%, 50% and 14%; strawberries 5%, 23% and 15%; cherries 5%, 37% and 5%; cranberries 4%, 12% and 7%; and apple 1%, 7% and 5%, respectively. Bile acid binding on DM basis for blueberries was significantly (P plums=prunes=strawberries=cherries=cranberries > apples as indicated by their bile acid binding on DM basis. The variability in bile acid binding between the fruits tested maybe related to their phytonutrients (antioxidants, polyphenols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, catechins), structure, hydrophobicity of undigested fractions, anionic or cationic nature of the metabolites produced during digestion or their interaction with active binding sites. Inclusion of blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries in our daily diet as health promoting fruits should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of fruits observed herein to their potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).

Influence of cranberry juice on attachment of Escherichia coli to glass

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Allison DG, Cronin MA, Hawker J, Freeman S
Journal: 
J Basic Microbiol 40(1):3-6
Abstract: 

An extract from fresh cranberries was shown to decrease the strength of attachment of Escherichia coli to glass coverslips when incubated together for 2 h. Pre-conditioning of the surface prior to biofilm formation also significantly weakened the strength of attached cells.

Media acidification by Escherichia coli in the presence of cranberry juice

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Johnson BJ, Lin B, Rubin RA, Malanoski AP
Journal: 
BMC Res Notes 2:226.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The inhibition of Escherichia coli growth in the presence of Vaccinium macrocarpon has been extensively described; however, the mechanisms of this activity are not well characterized.

FINDINGS: Here, E. coli was grown in media spiked with cranberry juice. The growth rate and media pH were monitored over more than 300 generations. The pH of the growth media was found to decrease during cell growth. This result was unique to media spiked with cranberry juice and was not reproduced through the addition of sugars, proanthocyanidins, or metal chelators to growth media.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that factors other than sugars or proanthocyanidins in cranberry juice result in acidification of the growth media. Further studies are necessary for a complete understanding of the antimicrobial activity of cranberry products.

Microbial inhibitors of cranberries

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Marwan AG, Nagel CW
Journal: 
J Food Sci 51(4):1009-1013
Abstract: 

An ethanolic extract of Cranberry exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on Saccharomyces bayanus and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobial properties of cranberries were due to a number of factors. First, the low pH (2.6) inhibited many microorganisms per se, and its effect on the dissociation of benzoic acid made the inhibition more drastic. Secondly, after raising the pH to 5.2, cranberry juice still did not support the growth of S. bayanus. Growth did occur at pH 5.2 after 0.3% yeast nitrogen base was added. Thirdly, proanthocyanidins and flavonols were found to be the major microbial inhibitors other than benzoic acid. The results showed that proanthocyanidins provided 21.3% of the inhibition, the flavonols 18.5% and benzoic acid 15.6%.

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