In vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris)
The in vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia) cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted to testing various fresh raw fruits on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter (DM), total dietary fibre (TDF) and total polysaccharides (PCH) basis was for blueberries 7%, 47% and 25%; plums 6%, 53% and 50%; prunes 5%, 50% and 14%; strawberries 5%, 23% and 15%; cherries 5%, 37% and 5%; cranberries 4%, 12% and 7%; and apple 1%, 7% and 5%, respectively. Bile acid binding on DM basis for blueberries was significantly (P plums=prunes=strawberries=cherries=cranberries > apples as indicated by their bile acid binding on DM basis. The variability in bile acid binding between the fruits tested maybe related to their phytonutrients (antioxidants, polyphenols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, catechins), structure, hydrophobicity of undigested fractions, anionic or cationic nature of the metabolites produced during digestion or their interaction with active binding sites. Inclusion of blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries in our daily diet as health promoting fruits should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of fruits observed herein to their potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).