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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits

Displaying 1 - 10 of 343

A Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Different Mouthrinses against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Abu-Obaid E; Salama F; Abu-Obaid A; Alanazi F; Salem M; Auda S; Al Khadra T.
Journal: 
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 21(5):500-508, 2020 May 01.
Abstract: 

AIM: To assess the antimicrobial effects of natural and semi-natural mouthrinses on isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus casei obtained from the saliva samples and their reference strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Natural and semi-natural mouthrinses included in this study were herbal mix mouthrinse, cranberry mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, cranberry extract mixed with chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse with alcohol (positive control), and distilled water (negative control). The microbiological examination tests were minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and zone of inhibition test for the saliva isolates of S. mutans, L. fermentum, and L. casei while zone of inhibition test only for their reference strains. RESULT: Compared with distilled water, herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine with alcohol (+), and chlorhexidine mouthrinses were associated with a significant increase of the zone of inhibition 34.354, 34.255, 34.219, 10.801, and 9.386, respectively. Both MIC and MBC were significantly higher in the cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine than in chlorhexidine with alcohol. The MIC and MBC of mouthrinses were significantly lower in the S. mutans and L. fermentum than in L. casei. CONCLUSION: Herbal mix and cranberry mouthrinses could be effective natural alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse with or without alcohol in improving oral health. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Different mouthrinses proposed in this study showed antimicrobial effects against the tested oral pathogens, and possibly the tested mouthrinses will lead for future formulation of natural or semi-natural pharmaceutical mouthrinses.

American cranberries and health benefits - an evolving story of 25 years.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhao ShaoMin; Liu HaiYan; Gu LiWei.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture; 2020. 100(14):5111-5116
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health

Antibacterial activities of a polyphenolic-rich extract prepared from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit pomace against Listeria spp.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Diarra, M. S.; Hassan, Y. I.; Block, G. S.; Drover, J. C. G.; Delaquis, P.; Oomah, B. D..
Journal: 
LWT - Food Science and Technology; 2020. 123
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruits are known for their high polyphenolics content making them a rich source of antioxidants. These polyphenolics have been reported to promote human health and are gaining attention for their antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens. We investigated the antimicrobial activity of an ethanolic extract (#FC111-1) prepared from cranberry pomace against Listeria spp. Many polyphenolics were identified in this extract which could be responsible for growth-inhibitory effects against 12 Listeria strains including L. monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of #FC111-1 determined in cation adjusted Muller Hinton broth (CAMHB) was approximately 2 mg/mL for 11 (91.7%) of these strains. The inclusion of 2-8 mg/mL (1-4 x MIC) of #FC111-1 decreased (>3 log10) viable bacterial cells of all Listeria strains in CAMHB over a 24 h period, while dose-dependently reducing bacterial salt tolerance, bacterial bile-salt hydrolase activity, bacterial biofilm formation capacity, and increasing cell-membrane permeability. The #FC111-1 extract (0.4 and 0.8% concentrations) had no effect on L. monocytogenes survival in a cooked chicken-breast meat model, highlighting the influence of protein-rich matrices on antibacterial activity and the need to consider the role of food composition when using extracts or polyphenolics from cranberry fruits to improve food-safety

Cranberries (Vacciniummacrocarpon aiton) in dog nutrition: influence on diet digestibility and palatability and in the course of urinary tract infections

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Olszewski, V. R.; Bastos, T. S.; Komarcheuski, A. S.; Oliveira, S. G.; Warth, J. F. G.; Felix, A. P
Journal: 
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; 2020. 72(5):1971-1979.
Abstract: 

The objective was to evaluate the effects of cranberry on blood and urinary parameters of dogs (experiment I), digestibility of nutrients (experiment II), palatability of diet (experiment III) and the influence of cranberry on E. coli UPEC-MRHA fimbriae in vitro (experiment IV). For experiment I and II, ten dogs were fed with diets containing 0% or 0.4% cranberry for 30 days. Experiment III compared the diets containing 0% and 0.4% cranberry using 16 adult dogs. There were no statistical differences (P>0.05) in the blood parameters evaluated. Dogs consuming cranberry presented lighter color and appearance of urine, compared to the control group (P<0.05). The diet containing cranberry showed higher digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, higher metabolizable energy (P<0.05) and reduced fecal sialic acid concentration (P<0.05) compared to the control diet. There was no influence of cranberry on the formation of fimbriae of E. coli UPEC-MRHA. There was a lower intake ratio of the diet containing cranberry (P<0.05). The inclusion of 0.4% cranberry increases the digestibility of nutrients and influences the color and appearance of urine of dogs. However, it reduces diet palatability and does not alter the adhesion of E. coli UPEC-MRHA in vitro..

Cranberries after pelvic floor surgery for urinary tract infection prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Mooren ES; Liefers WJ; de Leeuw JW
Journal: 
Neurourology & Urodynamics. 39(5):1543-1549,
Abstract: 

AIMS: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication after pelvic floor surgery. Antibiotics as prophylaxis may reduce the prevalence of UTI's by 50%, but bacterial resistance may be a large disadvantage, necessitating the search for other possible prophylactic options. Recent research found a 50% reduction in the rate of UTI's with the use of cranberry capsules after elective gynecologic surgery, suggesting that cranberry capsules may serve as a good prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to assess whether perioperative cranberry prophylaxis reduces the risk of clinical overt UTI after elective pelvic floor surgery with indwelling catheter. METHODS: We conducted a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women were given cranberry capsules twice daily or identical placebo for 6 weeks, starting the day before surgery. The main endpoint of the trial was the incidence of UTI within 6 weeks after surgery, defined as clinical diagnosis and treatment of UTI by the medical doctor. Analyses were performed with the intention to treat. RESULTS: Two hundred ten participants were included, 105 in each arm. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of UTI between the cranberry arm (n = 13, 12.4%) and the placebo arm (n = 21, 20.0%; P = .13), but the prevalence in both arms was lower than anticipated. CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows no beneficial effect of adequately dosed cranberry prophylaxis in women undergoing pelvic floor surgery, although such effect cannot be ruled out in settings with a higher prevalence of UTI's.

Cranberry polyphenols and prevention against urinary tract infections: relevant considerations

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Gonzalez de Llano, D.; Moreno-Arribas, M. V.; Bartolome, B..
Journal: 
Molecules; 2020. 25(15).
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a distinctive source of polyphenols as flavonoids and phenolic acids that has been described to display beneficial effects against urinary tract infections (UTIs), the second most common type of infections worldwide. UTIs can lead to significant morbidity, especially in healthy females due to high rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. Strategies and therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment against UTIs are continuously being sought after. Different to cranberry, which have been widely recommended in traditional medicine for UTIs prophylaxis, probiotics have emerged as a new alternative to the use of antibiotics against these infections and are the subject of new research in this area. Besides uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common bacteria causing uncomplicated UTIs, other etiological agents, such as Klebsiellapneumoniae or Gram-positive bacteria of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus genera, seem to be more widespread than previously appreciated. Considerable current effort is also devoted to the still-unraveled mechanisms that are behind the UTI-protective effects of cranberry, probiotics and their new combined formulations. All these current topics in the understanding of the protective effects of cranberry against UTIs are reviewed in this paper. Further progresses expected in the coming years in these fields are also discussed..

Cranberry powder attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
An YeonJu; Lee JeongYoon; Kim YulHa; Jun WooJin; Lee YooHyun
Journal: 
Journal of Medicinal Food; 2020. 23(12):1296-1302
Abstract: 

Cranberry powder (CR) is reported to be effective against lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and recurrent urinary tract infections. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men older than 50 years is a common cause of LUTS. Here, we attempted to evaluate if CR is also effective for treating BPH using a BPH-induced rat model, which was orally administered CR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into the following six groups (n = 9): noncastration group; castration group; BPH group; BPH and cranberry for 8-week (CR8W) group; BPH and cranberry for 4-week (CR4W) group; and BPH and saw palmetto group (saw palmetto). Compared with the BPH group, the CR8W group showed a significant decrease in prostate weight (by 33%), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (by 18% in serum and 28% in prostate), 5-alpha reductase levels (18% reduction of type 1 and 35% of type 2), and histological changes. These results indicate that CR could attenuate BPH by inhibiting 5-alpha reductase and by reducing other biomarkers such as prostate weight and DHT levels. Thus, CR may be an effective candidate for the development of a functional food for BPH treatment.

Efficacy of an orally administered combination of Lactobacillus paracasei LC11, cranberry and D-mannose for the prevention of uncomplicated, recurrent urinary tract infections in women

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Murina F; Vicariotto F; Lubrano C
Journal: 
Urologia (Treviso). 391560320957483, 2020 Sep 20.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Most women experience a urinary tract infection (UTI) at least once in their lifetime. The present study determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of Lactobacillus paracasei LC11, cranberry and D-mannose (Lactoflorene Cist R) in the prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in premenopausal women. METHODS: This single-centre study enrolled premenopausal women aged 18-50 years with an acute UTI and a history of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs. Patients were first treated with fosfomycin (3 g once a day for 2 days) to eliminate any underlying infection, followed by treatment with Lactoflorene Cist R once a day for 10 days/month for 90 days (Group 1), Lactoflorene Cist R once daily for 90 days (Group 2) or no treatment (Group 3; control). The main study endpoint was the rate of UTI recurrence during the study period. Any adverse events with treatment were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 55 women (mean age 39.3 years; range: 20-46) were enrolled in the study. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the control group experienced UTIs during the study period compared with the two treatment groups (52.9% vs 16.0% in Group 1 and 15.5% in group 2; p < 0.01). Similarly, a higher proportion of patients in Group 1 (65.8%) and Group 2 (68.7%) remained UTI-free during the study versus the control group. No adverse events were reported in the treated patients. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic treatment with Lactoflorene Cist R was effective and safe in the management of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in premenopausal women.

Modifications of the urinary metabolome in young women after cranberry juice consumption were revealed using the UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-HRMS-based metabolomics approach

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Liu HaiYan; Garrett, T. J.; Su ZhiHua; Khoo, C.; Zhao ShaoMin; Gu LiWei.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2020. 11(3):2466-2476
Abstract: 

The objectives of this research were to investigate urinary metabolome modifications and discover potential intake biomarkers in young women after cranberry juice consumption. Fifteen female college students were given either cranberry juice or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Urine samples were collected before and after juice consumption. The metabolome in the urine was analyzed using UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-HRMS-based metabolomics followed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). An S-plot was used to identify discriminant metabolites. Validated OPLS-DA analyses showed that cranberry juice consumption significantly altered the urinary metabolome. Compared to the baseline urine or urine after apple juice consumption, cranberry juice consumption increased urinary excretion of both exogenous and endogenous metabolites. The tentatively identified exogenous metabolites included quinic acid, coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(dihydroxyphenyl)-P-valerolactone sulfate, diphenol glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid, 3-(hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, 4-O-methylgallic acid, trihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. Modifications of endogenous metabolites after cranberry juice consumption included the increases in homocitric acid, hippuric acid, 3-hydroxy-3-carboxymethyl-adipic acid, (2)3-isopropylmalate, pimelic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde. These metabolites may serve as urinary biomarkers of cranberry juice consumption and contribute to the bioactivities of cranberries against urinary tract infection.

New evidences of antibacterial effects of cranberry against periodontal pathogens

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Sanchez, M. C.; Ribeiro-Vidal, H.; Bartolome, B.; Figuero, E.; Moreno-Arribas, M. V.; Sanz, M.; Herrera, D
Journal: 
Foods; 2020. 9(2).
Abstract: 

The worrying rise in antibiotic resistances emphasizes the need to seek new approaches for treating and preventing periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of cranberry in a validated in vitro biofilm model. After chemical characterization of a selected phenolic-rich cranberry extract, its values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were calculated for the six bacteria forming the biofilm (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). Antibacterial activity of the cranberry extract in the formed biofilm was evaluated by assessing the reduction in bacteria viability, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide (PMA), and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and anti-biofilm activity by studying the inhibition of the incorporation of different bacteria species in biofilms formed in the presence of the cranberry extract, using qPCR and CLSM. In planktonic state, bacteria viability was significantly reduced by cranberry (p < 0.05). When growing in biofilms, a significant effect was observed against initial and early colonizers (S. oralis (p 0.017), A. naeslundii (p = 0.006) and V. parvula (p = 0.010)) after 30 or 60 s of exposure, while no significant effects were detected against periodontal pathogens (F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis or A. actinomycetemcomitans (p > 0.05)). Conversely, cranberry significantly (p < 0.001 in all cases) interfered with the incorporation of five of the six bacteria species during the development of 6 h-biofilms, including P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and F. nucleatum. It was concluded that cranberry had a moderate antibacterial effect against periodontal pathogens in biofilms, but relevant anti-biofilm properties, by affecting bacteria adhesion in the first 6 h of development of biofilms

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