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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits

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A Systematic Review of Non-Antibiotic Measures for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ghouri F; Hollywood A; Ryan K.
Journal: 
BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 18(1):99
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnancy and account for the highest proportion of primary care antibiotic prescriptions issued to pregnant women in the UK. It is well known that antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and therefore measures to minimise antibiotic use for UTI prevention have been studied. The efficacy and safety of these measures in pregnancy have not been addressed and therefore the aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify and evaluate potential measures to prevent UTIs in pregnant women. METHODS: Ten databases (EMBASE, AMED, BNI, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Trials, Scopus and Science Direct) were systematically searched in July 2017 for studies reporting non-antibiotic measures to prevent UTIs in pregnancy. The terms ("urinary tract infection" or UTI or bacteriuria or cystitis) AND (prevention) AND (pregnan*) were used. The quality of the publications was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists for cohort study, case-control study and randomised controlled trial. The results were synthesised using a textual narrative approach. RESULTS: Search results yielded 3276 publications and after reviewing titles and removing duplicates, 57 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and eight were included in the review. Five different approaches (hygiene measures, cranberry juice, immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N) have been identified, all of which are reported to be safe in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The quality of the evidence varied considerably and only hygiene measures were supported by evidence to be recommended in practice. Future work needs to concentrate on strengthening the evidence base through improved design and reporting of studies with a focus on immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N.

Benefits and Risks of Cranberries in Cystitis in Cats and Dogs.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Desfontis, J. C. Mallem, Y.
Journal: 
Point Veterinaire; 49(384 (Part 1)):21.
Abstract: 

This article describes the chemical composition, efficacy and risks of using cranberries for the treatment of cystitis in cats and dogs.

Cranberry Antioxidant Power on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Mitochondrial Damage.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Caldas, APS; Coelho, OGL; Bressan J.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Properties, 21:1, 582-592, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2017.1409758
Abstract: 

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the fruits containing antioxidants in great quantity and of high quality. From recent research, it is evident that both cranberry and its products, when consumed chronically or acutely, boost the antioxidant effect. Likewise, most studies revealed the anti-inflammatory potential of the cranberry polyphenols. Both effects exert direct action mechanisms, revealed by the ability of the polyphenols to remove the reactive oxygen species, as well as indirect effects, represented by the action of these phytochemicals on the cell signaling pathways and genetic expression. A limited number of articles that evaluated the effects of cranberry on mitochondrial damages are available. However, an enhancement in the functions of this organelle was confirmed by the increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, further studies are required to demonstrate the benefits credited to the use of cranberry, as well as to describe the action mechanisms of the polyphenols.

Cranberry Proanthocyanidin-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Potential Inhibitor of Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Invasion of Gut Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Alfaro-Viquez E; Esquivel-Alvarado D; Madrigal-Carballo S; Krueger CG; Reed JD.
Journal: 
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 111:415-420
Abstract: 

Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). We determined the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles (PAC-CHTNp) on the ExPEC invasion of gut epithelial cells in vitro. PAC-CHTNp were characterized according to size, morphology, and bioactivity. Results showed a decrease in the size of the nanoparticles as the concentration of PAC was increased, indicating that PAC increases cross-linking by hydrogen-bonding on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were produced with diameters ranging from 367.3nm to 293.2nm. Additionally, PAC-CHTNp significantly inhibited the ability of ExPEC to invade the enterocytes by ~80% at 66mugGAE/mL and by ~92% at 100mugGAE/mL. Results also indicate that chitosan nanoparticles alone were not significantly different from controls in preventing ExPEC invasion of enterocytes (data not shown) and also there were not significant differences between PAC alone and PAC-CHTNp, suggesting that the new PAC-CHTNp could lead to an increase in the stability of encapsulated PAC, maintain the molecular adhesion of PAC to ExPEC.

Cranberry Supplementation Does Not Reduce Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Indwelling Catheters After Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Shatkin-Margolis A; Warehime J; Pauls RN.
Journal: 
Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery. 24(2):130-134
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common after pelvic reconstructive surgery, likely due to high rates of urinary retention. We sought to determine if prescription of cranberry capsules reduced UTIs in postoperative patients requiring catheter use. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. Two 6-month periods were compared: April to September 2015, before cranberry capsules were incorporated, and April to September 2016, after cranberry capsules were implemented. Our study population included patients discharged with a catheter after pelvic reconstructive surgery. All charts were reviewed for demographics, perioperative data, and urine cultures up to 6 weeks postoperatively. A UTI was defined as treatment with antibiotics or positive cultures. Statistical analysis was performed; logistic regression evaluated for relationships between UTI and other factors. Our a priori sample size calculation determined 88 subjects per group would be necessary. RESULTS: Over the 2 periods, 167 patients met inclusion criteria: 71 before and 96 after cranberry implementation. The 2 cohorts were similar in all data. Regarding incidence of UTI, rates were overall high and not significantly different between groups (76% before cranberry vs 69% with cranberry; P = 0.299). The median duration of catheter use was 8 days in both cohorts. The UTI was most likely to occur in the second week after surgery. Logistic regression revealed no associations between age, surgery type, duration of catheter use, and UTI. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, prescription of cranberry capsules did not significantly reduce UTI rates among patients with urinary catheters after pelvic reconstructive surgery.

Cranberry-Derived Proanthocyanidins Induce a Differential Transcriptomic Response within Candida Albicans Urinary Biofilms.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sundararajan A; Rane HS; Ramaraj T; Sena J; Howell AB; Bernardo SM; Schilkey FD; Lee SA.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE.13(8):e0201969
Abstract: 

Candida albicans is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, azoles are poorly active against biofilms, echinocandins do not achieve clinically useful urinary concentrations, and amphotericin B exhibits severe toxicities. Thus, novel strategies are needed to prevent Candida UTIs, which are often associated with urinary catheter biofilms. We previously demonstrated that cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) prevent C. albicans biofilm formation in an in vitro urinary model. To elucidate functional pathways unique to urinary biofilm development and PAC inhibition, we investigated the transcriptome of C. albicans in artificial urine (AU), with and without PACs. C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells were cultivated with or without PACs. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were determined using DESeq2 software; pathway analysis was performed using Cytoscape. Approximately 2,341 of 6,444 total genes were significantly expressed in biofilm relative to planktonic cells. Functional pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in filamentation, adhesion, drug response and transport were up-regulated in urinary biofilms. Genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and nutrient response were down-regulated. In PAC-treated urinary biofilms compared to untreated control biofilms, 557 of 6,444 genes had significant changes in gene expression. Genes downregulated in PAC-treated biofilms were implicated in iron starvation and adhesion pathways. Although urinary biofilms share key features with biofilms formed in other environments, many genes are uniquely expressed in urinary biofilms. Cranberry-derived PACs interfere with the expression of iron acquisition and adhesion genes within urinary biofilms.

Effects of Unextruded and Extruded Cranberry Pomace on Selected Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bajerska J; Chmurzynska A; Mildner-Szkudlarz S; Drzymala-Czyz S; Gornas P; Waskiewicz A; Muzsik A; Podgorski T; Nowaczyk P; Wozniewicz M.
Journal: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 17(1):91-100
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.

INHIBITION OF ADHESION OF UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI TO CANINE AND FELINE UROEPITHELIAL CELLS BY AN EXTRACT FROM CRANBERRY.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Mayot, G; Secher, C; Di Martino P
Journal: 
The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences; Nitra Vol. 7, Iss. 4: 404-406.DOI:10.15414/jmbfs.2018.7.4.404-406
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main infectious agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans, dogs and cats. Dietary consumption of cranberries is thought to be associated with prevention of UTI in humans based on decreased adhesion of UPEC to uroepithelial cells. The present study evaluated the impact of cranberry extract addition on the attachment of UPEC to canine Madin-Darby Canine Kidney and Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney uroepithelial cells. When the extract was present during bacterial growth or only during adhesion tests, a dose-dependent decrease of UPEC adhesion to all cell types was observed. Bacterial growth was weakly decreased only in the presence of the highest concentration of cranberry extract showing that the anti-adherence effect did not require a bacterial growth inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the addition of cranberry extract has preventive effects on the in vitro bacterial attachment to canine and feline uroepithelial cells in a dose dependent way.

Propolis Potentiates the Effect of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Against the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ranfaing J; Dunyach-Remy C; Louis L; Lavigne JP; Sotto A.
Journal: 
Scientific Reports. 8(1):10706,
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most prevalent bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections (UTI), is now frequently resistant to antibiotics used to treat this pathology. The antibacterial properties of cranberry and propolis could reduce the frequency of UTIs and thus the use of antibiotics, helping in the fight against the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Transcriptomic profiles of a clinical UPEC strain exposed to cranberry proanthocyanidins alone (190micro g/mL), propolis alone (102.4micro g/mL) and a combination of both were determined. Cranberry alone, but more so cranberry+propolis combined, modified the expression of genes involved in different essential pathways: down-expression of genes involved in adhesion, motility, and biofilm formation, and up-regulation of genes involved in iron metabolism and stress response. Phenotypic assays confirmed the decrease of motility (swarming and swimming) and biofilm formation (early formation and formed biofilm). This study showed for the first time that propolis potentiated the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins on adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, iron metabolism and stress response of UPEC. Cranberry+propolis treatment could represent an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent UTI.

Randomized Trial of Concentrated Proanthocyanidins (PAC) for Acute Reduction of Bacteriuria in Male Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury "Utilizing Clean Intermittent Catheterization.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sappal S; Goetz LL; Vince R; Klausner AP.
Journal: 
Spinal Cord Series and Cases. 4:58,
Abstract: 

Study design: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a concentrated PACs compound (36mg/capsule), in veterans with SCI and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) requiring intermittent catheterization (IC) over a 15-day period. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of concentrated proanthocyanidins (PACs) in the cranberry supplement ellura on bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and subjective urine quality in catheter-dependent veterans with SCI. Setting: Spinal cord injury center (outpatient clinic and inpatient unit). Methods: Participants with positive urine bacterial colonization (>=50K CFU/ml) were randomized to once daily concentrated PACs or identical placebo and followed with daily (in-patients) or twice weekly (out-patients) urine cultures with colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) range (bacteriuria), microscopic urine white blood cells per high-powered field (wbc/hpf) quantification (leukocyturia), and surveys assessing urine clarity, odor, color, sediment, and overall satisfaction. A repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare treatment vs. control and evaluate serial trends. Results: A total of 13 male participants (7 randomized to concentrated PACs, 6 to placebo) completed the trial. There was no significant decrease over the study period in colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) or log(wbc/hpf) in the treatment vs. the control group. Patients receiving concentrated PACs rated the clarity, odor, color, sediment, and overall satisfaction of their urine as insignificantly improved compared to placebo. Conclusions: Acutely, there was no reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria or improvement in subjective urine quality for SCI patients treated with daily concentrated PACs.

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