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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits

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Cranberry Supplementation Does Not Reduce Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Indwelling Catheters After Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Shatkin-Margolis A; Warehime J; Pauls RN.
Journal: 
Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery. 24(2):130-134
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common after pelvic reconstructive surgery, likely due to high rates of urinary retention. We sought to determine if prescription of cranberry capsules reduced UTIs in postoperative patients requiring catheter use. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. Two 6-month periods were compared: April to September 2015, before cranberry capsules were incorporated, and April to September 2016, after cranberry capsules were implemented. Our study population included patients discharged with a catheter after pelvic reconstructive surgery. All charts were reviewed for demographics, perioperative data, and urine cultures up to 6 weeks postoperatively. A UTI was defined as treatment with antibiotics or positive cultures. Statistical analysis was performed; logistic regression evaluated for relationships between UTI and other factors. Our a priori sample size calculation determined 88 subjects per group would be necessary. RESULTS: Over the 2 periods, 167 patients met inclusion criteria: 71 before and 96 after cranberry implementation. The 2 cohorts were similar in all data. Regarding incidence of UTI, rates were overall high and not significantly different between groups (76% before cranberry vs 69% with cranberry; P = 0.299). The median duration of catheter use was 8 days in both cohorts. The UTI was most likely to occur in the second week after surgery. Logistic regression revealed no associations between age, surgery type, duration of catheter use, and UTI. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, prescription of cranberry capsules did not significantly reduce UTI rates among patients with urinary catheters after pelvic reconstructive surgery.

Cranberry-Derived Proanthocyanidins Induce a Differential Transcriptomic Response within Candida Albicans Urinary Biofilms.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sundararajan A; Rane HS; Ramaraj T; Sena J; Howell AB; Bernardo SM; Schilkey FD; Lee SA.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE.13(8):e0201969
Abstract: 

Candida albicans is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, azoles are poorly active against biofilms, echinocandins do not achieve clinically useful urinary concentrations, and amphotericin B exhibits severe toxicities. Thus, novel strategies are needed to prevent Candida UTIs, which are often associated with urinary catheter biofilms. We previously demonstrated that cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) prevent C. albicans biofilm formation in an in vitro urinary model. To elucidate functional pathways unique to urinary biofilm development and PAC inhibition, we investigated the transcriptome of C. albicans in artificial urine (AU), with and without PACs. C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells were cultivated with or without PACs. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were determined using DESeq2 software; pathway analysis was performed using Cytoscape. Approximately 2,341 of 6,444 total genes were significantly expressed in biofilm relative to planktonic cells. Functional pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in filamentation, adhesion, drug response and transport were up-regulated in urinary biofilms. Genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and nutrient response were down-regulated. In PAC-treated urinary biofilms compared to untreated control biofilms, 557 of 6,444 genes had significant changes in gene expression. Genes downregulated in PAC-treated biofilms were implicated in iron starvation and adhesion pathways. Although urinary biofilms share key features with biofilms formed in other environments, many genes are uniquely expressed in urinary biofilms. Cranberry-derived PACs interfere with the expression of iron acquisition and adhesion genes within urinary biofilms.

Effects of Unextruded and Extruded Cranberry Pomace on Selected Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bajerska J; Chmurzynska A; Mildner-Szkudlarz S; Drzymala-Czyz S; Gornas P; Waskiewicz A; Muzsik A; Podgorski T; Nowaczyk P; Wozniewicz M.
Journal: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 17(1):91-100
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.

INHIBITION OF ADHESION OF UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI TO CANINE AND FELINE UROEPITHELIAL CELLS BY AN EXTRACT FROM CRANBERRY.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Mayot, G; Secher, C; Di Martino P
Journal: 
The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences; Nitra Vol. 7, Iss. 4: 404-406.DOI:10.15414/jmbfs.2018.7.4.404-406
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main infectious agent of urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans, dogs and cats. Dietary consumption of cranberries is thought to be associated with prevention of UTI in humans based on decreased adhesion of UPEC to uroepithelial cells. The present study evaluated the impact of cranberry extract addition on the attachment of UPEC to canine Madin-Darby Canine Kidney and Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney uroepithelial cells. When the extract was present during bacterial growth or only during adhesion tests, a dose-dependent decrease of UPEC adhesion to all cell types was observed. Bacterial growth was weakly decreased only in the presence of the highest concentration of cranberry extract showing that the anti-adherence effect did not require a bacterial growth inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the addition of cranberry extract has preventive effects on the in vitro bacterial attachment to canine and feline uroepithelial cells in a dose dependent way.

Propolis Potentiates the Effect of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Against the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ranfaing J; Dunyach-Remy C; Louis L; Lavigne JP; Sotto A.
Journal: 
Scientific Reports. 8(1):10706,
Abstract: 

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most prevalent bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections (UTI), is now frequently resistant to antibiotics used to treat this pathology. The antibacterial properties of cranberry and propolis could reduce the frequency of UTIs and thus the use of antibiotics, helping in the fight against the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Transcriptomic profiles of a clinical UPEC strain exposed to cranberry proanthocyanidins alone (190micro g/mL), propolis alone (102.4micro g/mL) and a combination of both were determined. Cranberry alone, but more so cranberry+propolis combined, modified the expression of genes involved in different essential pathways: down-expression of genes involved in adhesion, motility, and biofilm formation, and up-regulation of genes involved in iron metabolism and stress response. Phenotypic assays confirmed the decrease of motility (swarming and swimming) and biofilm formation (early formation and formed biofilm). This study showed for the first time that propolis potentiated the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins on adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, iron metabolism and stress response of UPEC. Cranberry+propolis treatment could represent an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent UTI.

Randomized Trial of Concentrated Proanthocyanidins (PAC) for Acute Reduction of Bacteriuria in Male Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury "Utilizing Clean Intermittent Catheterization.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sappal S; Goetz LL; Vince R; Klausner AP.
Journal: 
Spinal Cord Series and Cases. 4:58,
Abstract: 

Study design: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a concentrated PACs compound (36mg/capsule), in veterans with SCI and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) requiring intermittent catheterization (IC) over a 15-day period. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of concentrated proanthocyanidins (PACs) in the cranberry supplement ellura on bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and subjective urine quality in catheter-dependent veterans with SCI. Setting: Spinal cord injury center (outpatient clinic and inpatient unit). Methods: Participants with positive urine bacterial colonization (>=50K CFU/ml) were randomized to once daily concentrated PACs or identical placebo and followed with daily (in-patients) or twice weekly (out-patients) urine cultures with colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) range (bacteriuria), microscopic urine white blood cells per high-powered field (wbc/hpf) quantification (leukocyturia), and surveys assessing urine clarity, odor, color, sediment, and overall satisfaction. A repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare treatment vs. control and evaluate serial trends. Results: A total of 13 male participants (7 randomized to concentrated PACs, 6 to placebo) completed the trial. There was no significant decrease over the study period in colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml) or log(wbc/hpf) in the treatment vs. the control group. Patients receiving concentrated PACs rated the clarity, odor, color, sediment, and overall satisfaction of their urine as insignificantly improved compared to placebo. Conclusions: Acutely, there was no reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria or improvement in subjective urine quality for SCI patients treated with daily concentrated PACs.

Serious Adverse Events of Older Adults in Nursing Home and Community Intervention Trials.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Datta R; Trentalange M; Van Ness PH; McGloin JM; Guralnik JM; Miller ME; Walkup MP; Nadkarni N; Pahor M; Gill TM; Quagliarello V; Juthani-Mehta M; LIFE Study Group.
Journal: 
Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. 9:77-80
Abstract: 

Background/Aims: Clinical trials of older adults are increasingly common, but risks of serious adverse events (SAE) may vary. We describe the incidence of SAE in two randomized trials, one community-based and one nursing home-based. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis from two randomized clinical trials at one academic health center and 21 nursing homes involving 200 sedentary community dwellers aged 70-89 years and 185 female nursing home residents aged 65 years or older. Interventions included structured physical activity to reduce mobility disability in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study and oral cranberry capsules to reduce bacteriuria plus pyuria in nursing home residents (CRANNY) trial. We measured SAE incidence per 100 person-years and incidence of protocol-related unanticipated SAE per 100 person-years in LIFE and CRANNY trials. Results: Mean age and proportion of patients with dementia in LIFE and CRANNY trials were 79.3 years and 86.4 years and 0% and 78%, respectively. There were 179 total SAE in LIFE including 8 (4%) deaths, and 116 total SAE in CRANNY including 33 (28%) deaths. SAE incidence was 33.7 (95% CI 27.2, 41.8) events per 100 person-years in LIFE and 69.4 (95% CI 49.1, 98.1) events per 100 person-years in CRANNY. No protocol-related unanticipated SAE occurred in either trial. Conclusions: The frequency and severity of SAE vary in older adults. While SAE are common in nursing home residents, protocol-related, unanticipated SAE are rare in nursing home residents and community dwellers. This finding can inform trial monitoring protocols.

Standardised High Dose Versus Low Dose Cranberry Proanthocyanidin Extracts for the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Healthy Women [PACCANN]: a Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial Protocol.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Asma B; Vicky L; Stephanie D; Yves D; Amy H; Sylvie D.
Journal: 
BMC Urology. 18(1):29
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common bacterial infections affecting women. Although antibiotics are the treatment of choice for UTI, cranberry derived products have been used for many years to prevent UTIs, with limited evidence as to their efficacy. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of a cranberry extract capsule standardized in A-type linkage proanthocyanidins (PACs) for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection. METHODS: We will perform a 1:1 randomized, controlled, double blind clinical trial in women aged 18 years or more who present >=2 UTIs in 6 months or>=3 UTIs in 12 months. One hundred and forty-eight women will be recruited and randomized in two groups to either receive an optimal dose of cranberry extract quantified and standardized in PACs (2x18.5 mg PACs per day) or a control dose (2x1 mg PACs per day). The primary outcome for the trial is the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs in women during a 6-month intervention period. Secondary outcomes are: (1) To evaluate the mean number of new symptomatic UTIs with pyuria as demonstrated by a positive leucocyte esterase test; (2) To detect the mean number of new symptomatic culture-confirmed UTIs; (3) To quantify urinary PACs metabolites in women who take a daily dose of 37 mg PACs per day compared to women who take a daily dose of 2 mg per day for 6 months; (4) To characterize women who present recurrent UTI based on known risk factors for recurrent UTI; (5) To describe the side effects of daily intake of cranberry extract containing 37 mg PACs compared to 2 mg PACs. This report provides comprehensive methodological data for this randomized controlled trial. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will inform urologists, gynaecologists, family physicians and other healthcare professionals caring for healthy women with recurrent UTI, as to the benefits of daily use of an optimal dose of cranberry extract for the prevention of recurrent UTI.

The Cranberry Extract Oximacro Exerts in vitro Virucidal Activity Against Influenza Virus by Interfering With Hemagglutinin.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Luganini A; Terlizzi ME; Catucci G; Gilardi G; Maffei ME; Gribaudo G.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 9:1826,
Abstract: 

The defense against influenza virus (IV) infections still poses a series of challenges. The current antiviral arsenal against influenza viruses is in fact limited; therefore, the development of new anti-influenza strategies effective against antigenically different viruses is an urgent priority. Bioactive compounds derived from medicinal plants and fruits may provide a natural source of candidates for such broad-spectrum antivirals. In this regard, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) extracts on the basis of their recognized anti-adhesive activities against bacteria, may provide potential compounds able to prevent viral attachment to target cells. Nevertheless, only few studies have so far investigated the possible use of cranberry extracts as an antiviral tool. This study focuses on the suitability of a cranberry extract as a direct-acting anti-influenza compound. We show that the novel cranberry extract Oximacro inhibits influenza A and B viruses (IAV, IBV) replication in vitro because of its high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PAC-A) dimers and trimers. Mechanistic studies revealed that Oximacro prevents attachment and entry of IAV and IBV into target cells and exerts a virucidal activity. Oximacro was observed to interact with the ectodomain of viral hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, thus suggesting the interference with HA functions and a consequent loss of infectivity of IV particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a reduction in the intrinsic fluorescence of HA protein after incubation with purified dimeric PAC-A (PAC-A2), thus confirming a direct interaction between HA and Oximacro PAC-A2. In silico docking simulations further supported the in vitro results and indicated that among the different components of the Oximacro chemical profile, PAC-A2 exhibited the best binding propensity with an affinity below 10 nM. The role of PAC-A2 in the anti-IV activity of Oximacro was eventually confirmed by the observation that it prevented IAV and IVB replication and caused the loss of infectivity of IV particles, thus indicating PAC-A2 as the major active component of Oximacro. As a whole, these results suggest Oximacro as a potential candidate to create novel antiviral agents of natural origin for the prevention of IV infections.

The Effect of Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Recurrence of Urinary Tract Infection: Relationship to Baseline Risk Factors.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Maki, K. C. Nieman, K. M. Schild, A. L. Kaspar, K. L. Khoo, C.
Journal: 
Journal of the American College of Nutrition;37(2):121-126.
Abstract: 

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between clinical predictors of urinary tract infection (UTI) and effects of cranberry juice consumption on recurrence in a post hoc analysis of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial in women with a recent history of UTI. Methods: Participants consumed a cranberry (n=185) or placebo (n=188) beverage (240 mL) daily. Odds ratios (OR) from 20 candidate predictor variables were evaluated in univariate analyses to assess clinical UTI incidence relationships in the placebo group. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed. The effects of cranberry juice consumption were evaluated in subsets categorized by the likelihood of a UTI event based on the prediction model. Results: In the placebo group, the final multivariate regression model identified four variables associated with the odds for having >=1 UTI: intercourse frequency >=1 time during the prior 4 weeks (OR: 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 5.71; p=0.057), use of vasectomy or hormonal methods for contraception (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.20, 5.58; p=0.016), most recent UTI 21%). Incidence rate ratios for the cranberry vs placebo groups were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.22, 2.60; p=0.663) for those with 21% probability. Conclusions: Results suggest that clinical predictors identify women with low and high risk of clinical UTI recurrence, which may be useful for design of clinical studies evaluating preventive therapies.

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