Back to top

Search

2014

Displaying 1 - 10 of 45

Analysis of A-type and B-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins and their biological activities as nutraceuticals.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Yokota K, Kimura H, Ogawa S, Akihiro T
Journal: 
J Chem DOI: 10.1155/2013/352042
Abstract: 

Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

Anti-adhesion activity of A2-type proanthocyanidins (a cranberry major component) on uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis strains.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Nicolosi D, Tempera G, Genovese C, Furneri PM
Journal: 
Antibiotics 3(2):143-54
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

Antioxidant effects of cranberry powder in lipopolysaccharide treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Prev Nutr Food Sci 19(2):75-81
Abstract: 

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P

Attenuation of quorum sensing controlled virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by cranberry.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Harjai K, Gupta RK, Sehgal H
Journal: 
Indian J Med Res 139(3):446-53
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has led to the search for alternative agents for infections control. Natural products have been a good alternative to present antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry in attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa in experimental urinary tract infection (UTI) in mouse model. Efforts were also directed to explore the action of cranberry towards virulence of P. aeruginosa through quorum sensing (QS) inhibition.

METHODS: Efficacy of cranberry was evaluated in an experimental UTI mouse model and on production of QS signals, alginate, pyochelin, haemolysin, phospholipase-C, cell-surface hydrophobicity, uroepithelial cell-adhesion assay and biofilm formation by already standardized methods.

RESULTS: Presence of cranberry showed significant decline in the production of QS signals, biofilm formation and virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in vitro (P<0.001). Further, cranberry was found to be useful in prevention of experimental UTI in mouse model as indicated by reduced renal bacterial colonization and kidney tissues destruction.

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicated that cranberry inhibited QS and hence elaboration of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. It also affected the adherence ability of this pathogen. This approach can lead to the discovery of new category of safe anti-bacterial drugs from dietary sources such as cranberry with reduced toxicity without the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Mathison BD, Kimble LL, Kaspar KL, Khoo C, Chew BP
Journal: 
Nutr Res 34(5):420-7
Abstract: 

Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with lower risk from many chronic diseases. We hypothesized that a single dose of cranberry beverage would improve indices of oxidative stress, inflammation, and urinary antibacterial adhesion activity in healthy humans. Six males and 6 females (18-35 years; body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)) consumed placebo, cranberry leaf extract beverage, or low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) once in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design trial. The washout period between beverages was 1 week. Blood was collected 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after beverage consumption for measuring oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. Urine was collected at 0, 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 24 hours postintervention to assess antibacterial adhesion activity. Consumption of cranberry leaf extract beverage elevated (P < .05) blood glutathione peroxidase activity, whereas LCJC consumption increased (P < .05) glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity compared with placebo. Cranberry leaf extract beverage and LCJC consumption had no effect on the inflammatory biomarkers measured as compared with placebo. At 0 to 3 hours postconsumption, urine from participants who consumed cranberry beverages had higher (P < .05) ex vivo antiadhesion activity against P-fimbriated Escherichia coli compared with placebo. An acute dose of cranberry beverages improved biomarkers of antioxidant status and inhibition of bacterial adhesion in urine. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cost-effectiveness of cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Bosmans JE, Beerepoot MA, Prins JM, ter Riet G, Geerlings SE
Journal: 
PLoS ONE 9(4):e91939
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) over a 12 month period in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized trial. Primary outcome was the number of UTIs during 12 months. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction and quality of life. Healthcare utilization was measured using questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments.

RESULTS: Cranberry prophylaxis was less effective than TMP-SMX prophylaxis, but the differences in clinical outcomes were not statistically significant. Costs after 12 months in the cranberry group were statistically significantly higher than in the TMP-SMX group (mean difference 249, 95% confidence interval 70 to 516). Cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that cranberry prophylaxis to prevent UTIs is less effective and more expensive than (dominated by) TMP-SMX prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: In premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, cranberry prophylaxis is not cost-effective compared to TMP-SMX prophylaxis. However, it was not possible to take into account costs attributed to increased antibiotic resistance within the framework of this randomized trial; modeling studies are recommended to investigate these costs. Moreover, although we based the dosage of cranberry extract on available evidence, this may not be the optimal dosage. Results may change when this optimal dosage is identified.

Cost-effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infection in long-term care facilities: economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Hout WB van den, Caljouw MAA, Putter H, Cools HJM, Gussekloo J
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 62(1):111-16
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the preventive use of cranberry capsules in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents is cost-effective depending on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk. DESIGN: Economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Long-term care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: LTCF residents (N=928, 703 female, median age 84), stratified according to UTI risk. MEASUREMENTS: UTI incidence (clinically or strictly defined), survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. RESULTS: In the weeks after a clinical UTI, participants showed a significant but moderate deterioration in quality of life, survival, care dependency, and costs. In high-UTI-risk participants, cranberry costs were estimated at Euro 439 per year (1.00 euro=1.37 U.S. dollar), which is Euro 3,800 per prevented clinically defined UTI (95% confidence interval=Euro 1,300-infinity). Using the strict UTI definition, the use of cranberry increased costs without preventing UTIs. Taking cranberry capsules had a 22% probability of being cost-effective compared with placebo (at a willingness to pay of Euro 40,000 per QALY). In low-UTI-risk participants, use of cranberry capsules was only 3% likely to be cost-effective. CONCLUSION: In high-UTI-risk residents, taking cranberry capsules may be effective in preventing UTIs but is not likely to be cost-effective in the investigated dosage, frequency, and setting. In low-UTI-risk LTCF residents, taking cranberry capsules twice daily is neither effective nor cost-effective.

Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections - 2012

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC.
Journal: 
Cochrane Database Syst Rev doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND:
Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008.
OBJECTIVES:
To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations.
SEARCH METHODS:
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library) and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies.Date of search: July 2012
SELECTION CRITERIA:
All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy). Risk ratios (RR) were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool.
MAIN RESULTS:
This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design) with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants) evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants) evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta-analyses because either the design was a cross-over study and data were not reported separately for the first phase, or there was a lack of relevant data. Data included in the meta-analyses showed that, compared with placebo, water or not treatment, cranberry products did not significantly reduce the occurrence of symptomatic UTI overall (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.04) or for any the subgroups: women with recurrent UTIs (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31); older people (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.44); pregnant women (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17); children with recurrent UTI (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.22); cancer patients (RR 1.15 95% CI 0.75 to 1.77); or people with neuropathic bladder or spinal injury (RR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.20). Overall heterogeneity was moderate (I² = 55%). The effectiveness of cranberry was not significantly different to antibiotics for women (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85, 2.02) and children (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.32 to 1.51). There was no significant difference between gastrointestinal adverse effects from cranberry product compared to those of placebo/no treatment (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.27). Many studies reported low compliance and high withdrawal/dropout problems which they attributed to palatability/acceptability of the products, primarily the cranberry juice. Most studies of other cranberry products (tablets and capsules) did not report how much of the 'active' ingredient the product contained, and therefore the products may not have had enough potency to be effective.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
Prior to the current update it appeared there was some evidence that cranberry juice may decrease the number of symptomatic UTIs over a 12 month period, particularly for women with recurrent UTIs. The addition of 14 further studies suggests that cranberry juice is less effective than previously indicated. Although some of small studies demonstrated a small benefit for women with recurrent UTIs, there were no statistically significant differences when the results of a much larger study were included. Cranberry products were not significantly different to antibiotics for preventing UTIs in three small studies. Given the large number of dropouts/withdrawals from studies (mainly attributed to the acceptability of consuming cranberry products particularly juice, over long periods), and the evidence that the benefit for preventing UTI is small, cranberry juice cannot currently be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Other preparations (such as powders) need to be quantified using standardised methods to ensure the potency, and contain enough of the 'active' ingredient, before being evaluated in clinical studies or recommended for use.

Cranberry and recurrent cystitis: more than marketing?.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Micali S, Isgro G, Bianchi G, Miceli N, Calapai G, Navarra M
Journal: 
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(8):1063-75
Abstract: 

Epidemiologic studies indicate that millions of people suffer from recurrent cystitis, a pathology requiring antibiotic prophylaxis and entailing high social costs. Cranberry is a traditional folk remedy for cystitis and, which, in the form of a variety of products and formulations has over several decades undergone extensive evaluation for the management of urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this retrospective study is to summarize and review the most relevant and recent preclinical and clinical studies on cranberries for the treatment of UTIs. The scientific literature selected for this review was identified by searches of Medline via PubMed. A variety of recent experimental evidence has shed light on the mechanism underlying the anti-adhesive properties of proanthrocyanidins, their structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics. Analysis of clinical studies and evaluation of the cranberry efficacy/safety ratio in the prevention of UTIs strongly support the use of cranberry in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, evidence of its clinical use among other patients remains controversial.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins improve intestinal sIgA during elemental enteral nutrition.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Pierre JF, Heneghan AF, Feliciano RP, Shanmuganayagam D, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Kudsk KA
Journal: 
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 38(1):107-14
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function, including fewer Peyer's patch lymphocytes and lower levels of the tissue T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and mucosal transport protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), leading to lower luminal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels. Since we recently demonstrated that cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) maintain the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 when added to EEN, we hypothesized the addition of PACs to EEN would normalize other GALT parameters and maintain luminal levels of sIgA.

METHODS: Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized (12/group) to receive chow, EEN, or EEN + PACs (100 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days, starting 2 days after intragastric cannulation. Ileum tissue was collected to measure IL-4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, pIgR by Western blot, and phosphorylated STAT-6 by microarray. Intestinal wash fluid was collected to measure sIgA by Western blot.

RESULTS: Compared with chow, EEN significantly decreased tissue IL-4, phosphorylated STAT-6, and pIgR. The addition of PACs to EEN prevented these alterations. Compared with chow, EEN resulted in significantly lower levels of luminal sIgA. The addition of PACs to EEN increased luminal sIgA levels compared with EEN alone.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the addition of PACs to EEN may support GALT function and maintain intestinal sIgA levels compared with EEN administration alone.

Pages