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2014

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Recurrent urinary tract infections among women: comparative effectiveness of 5 prevention and management strategies using a Markov chain Monte Carlo model.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Eells SJ, Bharadwa K, McKinnell JA, Miller LG
Journal: 
Clin Infect Dis 58(2):147-60
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing >3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with >2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year. Model outcomes were treatment efficacy, patient and payer cost, and health-related quality of life.

RESULTS: Five strategies had >2 clinical trials published: (1) daily antibiotic (nitrofurantoin) prophylaxis; (2) daily estrogen prophylaxis; (3) daily cranberry prophylaxis; (4) acupuncture prophylaxis; and (5) symptomatic self-treatment. In the 3 UTIs/year model, nitrofurantoin prophylaxis was most effective, reducing the UTI rate to 0.4 UTIs/year, and the most expensive to the payer ($821/year). All other strategies resulted in payer cost savings but were less efficacious. Symptomatic self-treatment was the only strategy that resulted in patient cost savings, and was the most favorable strategy in term of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.

CONCLUSIONS: Daily antibiotic use is the most effective strategy for recurrent UTI prevention compared to daily cranberry pills, daily estrogen therapy, and acupuncture. Cost savings to payers and patients were seen for most regimens, and improvement in QALYs were seen with all. Our findings provide clinically meaningful data to guide the physician-patient partnership in determining a preferred method of prevention for this common clinical problem.

Solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts can decrease microbial colonization and biofilm development in indwelling urinary catheter: a microbiologic and ultrastructural pilot study.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Cai T, Caola I, Tessarolo F, Piccoli F, D'Elia C, Caciagli P, Nollo G, Malossini G, Nesi G, Mazzoli S, Bartoletti R
Journal: 
World J Urol 32(4):1007-14
Abstract: 

"PURPOSE: Plants extracts are used in urology to manage urinary tract infections. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a preparation with solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts (CISTIMEV PLUS()) in reducing microbial colonization and biofilm development in patients with indwelling urinary catheters.

METHODS: All consecutive outpatients attending our department between January and June 2010 for the substitution of indwelling catheters were considered for this single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study to test superiority of the preventative management (CISTIMEV PLUS(), 1 tablet daily for 30 days) in respect to no treatment. A sample size of 10-40 participants per group was considered adequate. All patients underwent urine culture the same day of the catheter substitution and were then randomized into test group (n = 48) and control group (n = 35). Ultrastructural analysis was also performed. After 30 days, the catheter was replaced and the analysis repeated. The primary outcome was the rate of positive urinary culture at the end of the entire study period.

RESULTS: Ten patients abandoned the study. At 30 days, according to per-protocol analysis, the groups statistically differed regarding the rate of positive urine cultures: test group 10/43 and control group 16/30 (p = 0.013) (-30.1 % [95 % CI -51.94 to -8.21]). The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts resulted in a significant reduction of microbial colonization in patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Larger clinical trials are needed to demonstrate that the effects here reported are sufficient to reduce symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections."

Supplement timing of cranberry extract plays a key role in promoting Caenorhabditis elegans healthspan.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Guha S, Natarajan O, Murbach CG, Dinh J, Wilson EC, Cao M, Zou S, Dong Y
Journal: 
Nutrients 6(2):911-21
Abstract: 

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans.

Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Khanal R, Howard LR, Prior RL
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 62(18):3987-96
Abstract: 

Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93 G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated

Acute effects of polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds on endothelial function and performance in elite athletes

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Labonté K, Couillard C, Motard-Bélanger A, Paradis M-E, Couture P, Lamarche B
Journal: 
Sports 1(3):55-68
Abstract: 

Abstract: We examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at rest, and cycling anaerobic performance, in elite athletes. In the first randomized cross-over study, FMD was measured over a three-hour period on two occasions in eight elite male and female athletes after acute consumption of either polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds (600 mg) or a polyphenol-free placebo drink. Consumption of the polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD compared to placebo (p = 0.02), with a peak at 60 min. In a second study, 12 elite male and female athletes completed a three-kilometer time trial (TT) on an ergocycle on two occasions in random order, either after consumption of 800 mg of polyphenols or a placebo. Acute intake of the polyphenol extract had no impact on the three-kilometer time trial completion. However, plasma lactate levels were significantly lower before and after the TT when subjects consumed the polyphenols vs. placebo (p

Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Duffey KJ, Sutherland LA
Journal: 
Nutrients 5(12):4938-49
Abstract: 

Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (>19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p 25 kg/m2, p

Can cranberry extract and vitamin C + Zn supplements affect the in vivo activity of paraoxonase 1, antioxidant potential, and lipid status?.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Begcevic I, Simundic AM, Nikolac N, Dobrijevic S, Rajkovic MG, Tesija-Kuna A
Journal: 
Clin Lab 59(9-10):1053-60
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The modern way of life exposes us to substantial oxidative stress, putting the focus on the research of antioxidant effects of dietary supplements. Recent studies have shown that the effectiveness of particular vitamins and herbal preparations might have an effect on paraoxonase activity. Paraoxonase 1 is an HDL associated enzyme which prevents the oxidation of LDL. Several studies have shown the beneficial effect of some dietary components to the activity of paraoxonase. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cranberry extract and vitamin C and zinc preparations (vitamin C + Zn) on serum paraoxonase 1 activity, antioxidant status, and glucose and lipid concentration.

METHODS: The study included 31 healthy volunteers (median age 24 years). They were divided into 3 groups according to the intervention type and smoking status and exposed to commercially available preparations of the cranberry extract (2 g/day) and vitamin C + Zn (300 mg/day) during 4 weeks.

RESULTS: The results have shown that there is a significant increase in the activity of the paraoxonase 1 in nonsmokers after the intervention with the cranberry extract as well as with vitamin C + Zn preparations. Also, total antioxidant status increased in the non-smokers subgroup after intervention with vitamin C + Zn. However, the lipid profile did not change significantly in response to antioxidant preparations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that antioxidant supplements can increase the antioxidant potential of an organism as well as paraoxonase 1 activity. This observation is pointing to the potential complementary role of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis.

Consumption of cranberry polyphenols enhances human gamma delta -T cell proliferation and reduces the number of symptoms associated with colds and influenza: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Nantz MP, Rowe CA, Muller C, Creasy R, Colee J, Khoo C, Percival SS
Journal: 
Nutr J 12(161)
Abstract: 

Background: Our main objective was to evaluate the ability of cranberry phytochemicals to modify immunity, specifically gamma delta -T cell proliferation, after daily consumption of a cranberry beverage, and its effect on health outcomes related to cold and influenza symptoms. Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention. Subjects drank a low calorie cranberry beverage (450 ml) made with a juice-derived, powdered cranberry fraction (n=22) or a placebo beverage (n=23), daily, for 10 wk. PBMC were cultured for six days with autologous serum and PHA-L stimulation. Cold and influenza symptoms were self-reported. Results: The proliferation index of gamma delta -T cells in culture was almost five times higher after 10 wk of cranberry beverage consumption (p

Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women--a modified observational study.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Burleigh AE, Benck SM, McAchran SE, Reed JD, Krueger CG, Hopkins WJ
Journal: 
Nutr J 12(1):139
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberry juices and supplements have been used for UTI prophylaxis, but with variable efficacy. Because dried cranberries may contain a different spectrum of polyphenolics than juice, consuming berries may or may not be more beneficial than juice in decreasing the incidence of UTIs in susceptible women. The primary objectives of this study were to determine if consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries (SDC) decreases recurrent UTIs and whether this intervention would alter the heterogeneity, virulence factor (VF) profiles, or numbers of intestinal E. coli.

METHODS: Twenty women with recurrent UTIs were enrolled in the trial and consumed one serving of SDC daily for two weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined by two criteria, a decrease in the six-month UTI rates pre- and post-consumption and increased time until the first UTI since beginning the study. Strain heterogeneity and virulence factor profiles of intestinal E. coli isolated from rectal swabs were determined by DNA fingerprinting and muliplex PCR, respectively. The numbers of intestinal E. coli eluted from rectal swabs pre- and post-consumption were also quantified.

RESULTS: Over one-half of the patients did not experience a UTI within six months of SDC consumption, and the mean UTI rate per six months decreased significantly. Kaplan-Meier analysis of infection incidence in women consuming SDC compared to patients in a previous control group showed a significant reduction in time until first UTI within six months. The heterogeneity, VF profiles, and prevalence of intestinal E. coli strains were not significantly different after cranberry consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate a beneficial effect from consuming SDC to reduce the number of UTIs in susceptible women. Because there were no changes in the heterogeneity or VF profiles of E. coli, additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action of SDC for reduction of UTIs.

Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Blumberg JB, Camesano TA, Cassidy A, Kris-Etherton P, Howell A, Manach C, Ostertag LM, Sies H, Skulas-Ray A, Vita JA
Journal: 
Adv Nutr 4(6):618-32
Abstract: 

Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health.

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