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2014

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Cranberry extract suppresses interleukin-8 secretion from stomach cells stimulated by Helicobacter pylori in every clinically separated strain but inhibits growth in part of the strains.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Matsushima M, Suzuki T, Masui A, Mine T, Takagi A
Journal: 
J Funct Foods 5(2):729-735
Abstract: 

It is known that cranberry inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (HP). In human stomach, HP basically induces chronic inflammation by stimulating stomach cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-8 and other inflammatory cytokines, and causes stomach cancer, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibiting effects of cranberry on HP growth and IL-8 secretion from stomach cells induced by HP, using clinically separated HP strains. HP growth in liquid culture and on-plate culture was evaluated by titration after 2-day incubation and by agar dilution technique, respectively. For IL-8 experiments, MKN-45, a stomach cancer cell line, was incubated with HP for 24 h and IL-8 in the medium was assayed by ELISA. Cranberry suppressed growth of the bacteria only in six of the 27 strains. Meanwhile, it suppressed IL-8 secretion in all the strains. The results may suggest a possible role of cranberry in prevention of stomach cancer by reducing gastric inflammation.

Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in drosophila

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Wang C, Yolitz J, Alberico T, Laslo M, Sun Y, Wheeler CT, Sun X, Zou S
Journal: 
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt161
Abstract: 

Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging.

Cranberry juice ingestion and clinical drug-drug interaction potentials; review of case studies and perspectives.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Srinivas NR
Journal: 
J Pharm Pharm Sci 16(2):289-303
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice is a popular beverage with many health benefits. It has anthocyanins to supplement dietary needs. Based on in vitro evidence cranberry juice is an inhibitor of CYP enzymes and at higher amounts as potent as ketoconazole (CYP3A) and fluconazole (CYP2C9). There is, however, a discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations with respect to a number of substrates (cyclosporine, warfarin, flurbiprofen, tizanidine, diclofenac, amoxicillin, ceflacor); with the exception of a single report on midazolam, where there was a moderate increase in the AUC of midazolam in subjects pre-treated with cranberry juice. However, another study questions the clinical relevancy of in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction between cranberry juice and midazolam. The controversy may be due to a) under in vitro conditions all anthocyanin principles may be available to have a concerted effort in CYP inhibition; however, limited anthocyanin principles may be bioavailable with varying low levels in the in vivo studies; b) a faster clearance of the active anthocyanin principles under in vivo conditions may occur, leading to low threshold levels for CYP inhibition; c) efficient protein binding and/or rapid tissue uptake of the substrate may have precluded the drug availability to the enzymes in the in vivo studies. With respect to pharmacodynamic aspects, while the debate continues on the issue of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice, the summation of the pharmacodynamics data obtained in patients and healthy subjects from different prospectively designed and controlled clinical trials does not provide overwhelming support for the existence of a pharmacodynamic drug interaction for normal cranberry juice ingestion. However, it is apparent that consumption of large quantities of cranberry juice (about 1-2 L per day) or cranberry juice concentrates in supplements for an extended time period (>3-4 weeks) may temporally alter the effect of warfarin. Therefore, the total avoidance of cranberry juice by warfarin users may not be warranted by the published studies. However, in certain situations of higher intake of cranberry juice or concentrate there may be a need to monitor both warfarin doses and its effect.

Current clinical status on the preventive effects of cranberry consumption against urinary tract infections. [Review]

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Vasileiou I, Katsargyris A, Theocharis S, Giaginis C
Journal: 
Nutr Res 33(8):595-607
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and quite costly medical problem, primarily affecting the female population which may be due to a shorter urethra. The bacterium Escherichia coli are mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have widely been studied in vitro, and laboratory and clinical studies have also been performed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberry actions and the clinical benefits of cranberry consumption against UTIs. The present review aimed to summarize the proposed mechanisms of cranberry actions against UTIs and the clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of supplementing cranberry products in different subpopulations. Taking into consideration the existing data, cranberry consumption may prevent bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells which reduces the development of UTI. Cranberry consumption could also decreasing UTI related symptoms by suppressing inflammatory cascades as an immunologic response to bacteria invasion. The existing clinical trials suggest that the beneficial effects of cranberry against UTIs seem to be prophylactic by preventing the development of infections; however, they exert low effectiveness in populations at increased risk for contracting UTIs. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized cranberry products are strongly justified in order to determine the efficiency of cranberry on the prevention of UTIs in susceptible populations. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cysticlean a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Sanchez Ballester F, Ruiz Vidal V, Lopez Alcina E, Domenech Perez C, Escudero Fontano E, Oltra Benavent A, Montoliu Garcia A, Sobron Bustamante M
Journal: 
BMC Urol 13:28
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL).

METHODS: This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment.

RESULTS: The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean was 2.8+1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2+0.5 at Month 6 (P

CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study.

Development and validation of a sensitive, high-throughput bioassay for the adhesion of radiolabeled E. coli to uroepithelial cells in vitro.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Mathison BD, Kimble LL, Kaspar KL, Khoo C, Chew BP
Journal: 
J Nat Prod 76(9):1605-11
Abstract: 

Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) products have been used to prevent uropathogenic Escherichia (E.) coli adherence to uroepithelial cells (UEC) and may help reduce risk of urinary tract infection. Reported herein are the development and validation of an assay to assess antiadhesion activity of V. macrocarpon extracts and human urine. P-fimbriated E. coli (CFT073) was labeled with H-uridine, then co-incubated with HTB-4 UEC at a 400:1 ratio. V. macrocarpon extracts (0-17 mg proanthocyanidins/mL) were added to H-labeled E. coli before co-incubating with UEC. The assay yielded a sensitive inhibition curve: the lower limit of detection and half-maximal inhibitory concentration were 0.43 and 1.59 mg proanthocyanidins/mL for V. macrocarpon extract CEP 55; intra- and interassay coefficients of variance were

Effects of cranberry powder on biomarkers of oxidative stress and glucose control in db/db mice.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Chung JY, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Nutr Res Pract 7(6):430-8
Abstract: 

Increased oxidative stress in obese diabetes may have causal effects on diabetic complications, including dyslipidemia. Lipopolysccharides (LPS) along with an atherogenic diet have been found to increase oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Cranberry has been recognized as having beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidative stress. Therefore, we employed obese diabetic animals treated with an atherogenic diet and LPS, with the aim of examining the effects of cranberry powder (CP) on diabetic related metabolic conditions, including lipid profiles, serum insulin and glucose, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Forty C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were divided into the following five groups: normal diet + saline, atherogenic diet + saline, atherogenic diet + LPS, atherogenic diet + 5% CP + LPS, and atherogenic diet + 10% CP + LPS. Consumption of an atherogenic diet resulted in elevation of serum total cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) and reduction of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. However, with 10% CP, the increase in mean HDL-cholesterol level was close to that of the group with a normal diet, whereas AI was maintained at a higher level than that of the group with a normal diet. LPS induced elevated serum insulin level was lowered by greater than 60% with CP (P 0.05). Mean activity of liver cytosolic glutathione peroxidase was significantly increased by LPS injection, however it was reduced back to the value without LPS when the diet was fortified with 10% CP (P 0.05). Overall results suggest that fortification of the atherogenic diet with CP may have potential health benefits for obese diabetes with high oxidative stress, by modulation of physical conditions, including some biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Tipton DA, Cho S, Zacharia N, Dabbous MK
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 48(5):638-46
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 + cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 mug/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons.

RESULTS: In both cell lines, IL-17 (> ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p

CONCLUSION: Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis. 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy--the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Holst L
Journal: 
BMC Altern Med 13:345
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes.

METHODS: The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

RESULTS: Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study, revealing no increased risk of malformations nor any of the following pregnancy outcomes; stillbirth/neonatal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial therapy as the first line treatment. According to our data and the outcomes studied, cranberry does not appear to be a harmful adjunctive self-treatment.

Proanthocyanidin A2 purification and quantification of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) products.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Lee JM
Journal: 
J Funct Foods 5(1):144-153
Abstract: 

In this study, five common proanthocyanidin purification techniques were evaluated prior to phloroglucinolysis, followed by HPLC analysis. An optimized purification method was then used to identify and quantify the proanthocyanidins (extension and terminal units of epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, A type trimer, and A type dimer) of commercially available cranberry products (juices, concentrates, tablets, and capsules; n=17). Two size exclusion beads (Toyopearl 4 TSK HW-40C and Sephadex LH-20) were found suitable for proanthocyanidin purification, though proanthocyanidin extension and terminal unit composition was contingent upon the cleanup procedure utilized. These data illustrate that purification methods require consideration prior to conducting any cranberry proanthocyanidin analyses, and have to be accounted for when comparing values between studies. Total proanthocyanidin levels ranged from 11.7 (juice) to 436.4 (tablet) mg/100 mL or 100 g values obtained from Sephadex LH-20 purification, while total anthocyanin levels ranged from 0.54 (juice) to 98.00 (tablet) mg/100 mL or 100 g.

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