Short-term effects of sugar-free apricot jam, cocoa powder and dried cranberry cereal bar on glycaemic responses in healthy adults: a randomised clinical trial
High sugar intake has been associated with adverse effects on health, with some types of breakfast being highly linked to overweight and obesity. The aim was to compare the effects of four sugar-free breakfast items, apricot jam with white bread (JWB), white bread (WB), cocoa with fat-free milk (CM), and dried cranberry cereal bar (CB), compared to d-glucose on the glycaemic responses. Using a cross-over design, twelve healthy individuals (25 +/- 4 years; BMI 22 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) received isoglucidic test meals (25 g of available carbohydrate) and 25 g glucose reference, in random order. Glycaemic index/load (GI/GL) were calculated, and capillary blood glucose samples were collected at 0-120 min after meal consumption. Subjective appetite was assessed with visual analogue scales. Sugar-free apricot jam and cocoa powder contained traces of available carbohydrates and were consumed along with bread and fat-free milk, respectively. JWB and WB were classified as medium GI, low-to-medium GL; CM as medium GI, low GL; and CB as high GI, low-to-medium GL. Subjective hunger was lower after JWB, fullness was higher after CM and pleasure was higher after CB (P for all < 0.05). In conclusion, sugar-free apricot jam with and without WB and cocoa powder with fat-free milk are suitable healthy breakfast options leading to improved glycaemic and subjective appetite responses.