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2019

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Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Compounds of Vitamin C-Rich Juices.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Nowak, D. Goslinski, M. Wojtowicz, E. Przygonski, K.
Journal: 
Journal of Food Science. 83(8):2237-2246.
Abstract: 

Many studies have shown that bioactive compounds, for example, polyphenols, and so on can play an important role in reducing oxidative stress and protect against various diseases. The sources of these compounds in the human diet include mainly fruit and good quality fruit juices, which may contain polyphenols but also other phytochemicals such as vitamin C. The purpose of the study was to analyze the antioxidant properties of vitamin C-rich juices, which underwent mild processing. The content of total polyphenols (TP, FBBB), total flavonoids (TF), total anthocyanins (TA), and vitamin C as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS) were evaluated in commercial fruit juices rich in vitamin C (acerola, gojiberry, sea buckthorn, wild rose, cranberry, Japanese quince). Moreover, phenolic acids and selected flavonoids were determined by HPLC methods. Among the examined fruit juices, acerola and wild rose juices contained the highest amounts of vitamin C and total polyphenols, and had the highest antioxidant capacity. Acerola owes its high antioxidant properties mainly to vitamin C, whereas the antioxidant capacity of wild rose is also attributed to its rich content of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Sea buckthorn juice and Japanese quince juice had a lower antioxidant capacity, yet higher than determined for gojiberry and cranberry juices. Total anthocyanins were the highest in cranberry juice. The results showed that the analyzed juices were a valuable source of natural antioxidants. Generally, vitamin C-rich juices are also good source of polyphenols. Vitamin C and polyphenols act synergistically and define the antioxidant properties of juices.

Association Between Berries Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Luís A, Domingues F, Pereira L
Journal: 
Food Funct. 2018 Feb 21;9(2):740-757. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01551h.
Abstract: 

The main goal of this work was to clarify the effects of the consumption of berries on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors by performing a systematic review according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) statement, followed by a meta-analysis and a trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between April and June 2016. To be included, RCTs had to report 1 or more of the following outcomes: total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides (TG), blood pressure (BP), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). It was observed that the intake of berries reduces TC, LDL, TG, and BP while increasing the level of HDL, suggesting a beneficial effect on the control of CVDs' risk factors. Thus, the intake of berries as nutraceuticals or functional foods could be suggested for the prevention and control of CVDs.

BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY: AN IN-VITRO STUDY

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Krishnaeswari V, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar J
Journal: 
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.10(1).438-44
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain many bioactive compounds and have some biological activities and beneficial health properties. This study aimed to screen phytochemicals of cranberry fruits from the different solvent, to estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content of cranberry fruits and their antioxidant effect in-vitro by DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening of various extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether of cranberry fruit extracts, revealed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, coumarins, terpenoids, and betacyanin. The cranberry extracts were evaluated for phenol and flavonoid content with Gallic acid (GA) and Quercetin (Q) as standard. The optimum yield of phenol and flavonoid content were found in ethanol fruit extract 13.07 mg Gallic acid Equivalents (GAE)/g and 9.02 mg Quercetin Equivalents (QE)/g of cranberry. The cranberry extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activities by DPPH (1,1– diphenyl -2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Among five different solvents used, maximum antioxidant activity was found in ethanolic fruit extract (81.4%) followed by others. The IC50 values of ethanolic cranberry extract in superoxide radical scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay are 61.1 µg/ml and 54.7 µg/ml. The IC50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the extracts. The powerful antioxidant effect attributed to the greater amount of phenol and flavonoid compound in the ethanolic cranberry extract.

Chemopreventive Effects of Whole Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on Colitis-Associated Colon Tumorigenesis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Wu X, Song M, Cai X, Neto C, Tata A, Han Y, Wang Q, Tang Z, Xiao H.
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Dec;62(24):e1800942. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201800942.
Abstract: 

SCOPE:There are growing interests in using a whole-food-based approach to prevent chronic diseases due to potential synergistic interactions among different bioactive components within the whole foods. North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), a polyphenol-rich fruit, has been shown to exert multiple beneficial health effects.METHODS AND RESULTS:For the first time, the protective effects of whole cranberry powder (WCP) are determined against colitis-associated mouse colon tumorigenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The results show that dietary administration of WCP (1.5%, w/w in the diet) significantly suppresses colon tumorigenesis as indicated by the reduced tumor incidence, multiplicity, burden, and average tumor size in WCP-fed mice compared to the positive control mice. Both gene and protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α are markedly attenuated by WCP treatment in the colon of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Moreover, WCP profoundly modulates multiple signaling pathways/proteins related to inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis in the colon, which is closely associated with the inhibitory effects of WCP on colon tumorigenesis.CONCLUSION:Overall, the results demonstrate chemopreventive effects of WCP on colon tumorigenesis in mice, providing a scientific basis for using the whole cranberry as a functional food to promote colon health in humans.

Comparative Evaluation of Grape Seed and Cranberry Extracts in Preventing Enamel Erosion: An Optical Emission Spectrometric Analysis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Nandakumar M, Nasim I.
Journal: 
J Conserv Dent. 2018 Sep-Oct;21(5):516-520. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_110_18.
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION:Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth structure due to chemical process that does not involve bacteria. The management of such a condition calls for a comprehensive approach to identifying the cause and treating it.AIM:The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the role of grape seed extract (GSE) and cranberry extract (CE) in preventing dental erosion using optical emission spectrometry.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Prepared enamel specimens were subjected to the erosive challenge using HCl for 10 s, followed by immersion in experimental natural groups and control fluoride group for 30 s and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated three times. The amounts of calcium and phosphorous present in the acid solution after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were determined for each group using induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.RESULTS:The cumulative calcium and phosphorous release after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were found to be the least in SnF2 group, followed by GSE group and then in CE group.CONCLUSION:The protective of GSE and CE was inferior to the gold standard control group of stannous fluoride role, against enamel erosion. GSE showed better remineralizing effect; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Cranberries Attenuate Animal-Based Diet-Induced Changes in Microbiota Composition and Functionality: a Randomized Crossover Controlled Feeding Trial.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Morato, J. Matthan, N. R. Liu Jin Torre, R. de la Chen, C. Y. O.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 62:76-86.
Abstract: 

Cranberries have multiple health effects but their impact on gut microbiota has not been examined in randomized controlled feeding trials. We evaluated the relationship between the microbiota and cranberries in the context of an animal-based diet. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, controlled design trial, 11 healthy adults consumed for 5 days each a control diet (animal-based diet plus 30 g/day placebo powder) and a cranberry diet (animal-based diet plus 30 g/day freeze-dried whole cranberry powder). The animal-based diet included meats, dairy products, and simple sugars. Stool, urine, and blood samples were obtained before and after each intervention phase. As compared to the pre-control diet, control diet modified 46 taxonomic clades, including an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes and decrease in Bacteroidetes. Moreover, it increased bacteria-derived deoxycholic acid and decreased acetate and butyrate in stool. As compared to the post-intervention phase of control diet, the cranberry diet modified 9 taxonomic clades, including a decrease in the abundance of Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. Further, the cranberry diet attenuated control diet-induced increase in secondary bile acids and decrease in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and increased urinary anthocyanins and bacterially derived phenolic acids. No changes were found in fecal trimethylamine and plasma cytokines. In conclusion, an animal-based diet altered the microbiota composition to a less favorable profile, increased carcinogenic bile acids, and decreased beneficial SCFA. Cranberries attenuated the impact of the animal-based diet on microbiota composition, bile acids, and SCFA, evidencing their capacity to modulate the gut microbiota.

Cranberry Consumption Against Urinary Tract Infections: Clinical Stateof- the-Art and Future Perspectives.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Mantzorou M, Giaginis C.
Journal: 
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018;19(13):1049-1063. doi: 10.2174/1389201020666181206104129
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and costly public health issue. The bacterium Escherichia coli is mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have extensively been studied in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of its bioactive components and their clinical benefits against UTIs. In this respect, the present review aims to critically analyze the current clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of supplementing cranberry products against UTIs in different subpopulations.METHODS:PubMed database was comprehensively searched, using relative keywords in order to identify clinical trials exploring the efficacy of cranberry supplementation against UTIs.RESULTS:Current clinical evidence clearly indicates a possible benefit overall from the use of cranberries against UTIs. Cranberry consumption may prevent bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, reducing UTI related symptoms. Cranberry consumption could also decrease UTI related symptoms by suppressing inflammatory cascades as an immunologic response to bacterial invasion. The existing clinical trials have supported substantial evidence that the beneficial effects of cranberry against UTIs seem to be prophylactic by preventing infections recurrence; however, they exert low effectiveness in populations at increased risk for contracting UTIs. Moreover, a lack of cost-effectiveness for cranberry supplementation has been highlighted.CONCLUSIONS:Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized cranberry products for long study periods are strongly recommended in order to determine the efficiency of cranberry on the prevention of UTIs in susceptible populations. At present, cranberry supplementation can safely be suggested as complementary therapy in women with recurrent UTIs.

Cranberry Juice Decreases Disease Activity in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Thimóteo NSB, Iryioda TMV, Alfieri DF, Rego BEF, Scavuzzi BM, Fatel E, Lozovoy MAB, Simão ANC, Dichi I.
Journal: 
Nutrition. 2019 Apr;60:112-117. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.010.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA.METHODS:A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA. The disease activity measured by Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, and several inflammatory and biochemical biomarkers were analyzed. The control group (n = 18) maintained their usual diet. The cranberry group (n = 23) consumed 500 mL/d of low-calorie cranberry juice.RESULTS:Regarding the baseline values, the cranberry group presented a decrease in the values of DAS28 (P = 0.048) and anti-CCP (P = 0.034) after 90 d of treatment, whereas changes in inflammatory biomarkers were not found.CONCLUSION:The present study indicated that cranberry juice decreases disease activity and therefore has beneficial effects for RA patients, although larger and long-term studies are needed to definitively probe this effect and to clarify the mechanisms involved.

Cranberry Standardized Capsules May Prevent Recurrences of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
John Dotis, Stella Stabouli, Antigoni Pavlaki, Fotios Papachristou and Nikoleta Printza
Journal: 
Clinics in Pediatrics 2018, Vol 1, Article 1007.
Abstract: 

We conducted a prospective study with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standardized cranberry capsules as prophylaxis in children with recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Therefore, children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, with history of recurrent UTIs, were recruited for the study and randomized to receive cranberry in a standardized dose of cranberry extract 125 mg (proanthocyanidins 7.2%), vitamin C 7.5 mg and vitamin E 2.5 mg or not. They were followed for 1 year during which compliance, side-effects and UTI episodes were recorded. Children on cranberry compared to control group presented significantly lower percentage of UTIs, fewer days/year on antibiotic treatment and lower percentage of initiation of antimicrobial prophylaxis (p<0.05) due to UTIs recurrences. In addition, in the subgroup of children with vesicoureteral reflux we observe a significant difference between the cranberry and the controls group in the number of UTIs (p<0.05). No side effects in cranberry group were reported. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Proteus spp. in this order were the predominant species isolated in both groups in the beginning and also in the end of the study. A trend of decrease of E. coli episodes in the cranberry group before and after the treatment was documented (83.3% vs. 66.6%), however, this was not significant (p=0.28). It seems that the use of standardized dose of cranberry seems to be a secure and effective treatment for children with recurrent episodes of UTIs

Effect of Vaccinium Macrocarpon on MK-801-Induced Psychosis in Mice.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Shukla D, Maheshwari RA, Patel K, Balaraman R, Sen AK.
Journal: 
Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Sep-Oct;50(5):227-235. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_74_17.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous cranberry extract (ACE) on MK-801-induced psychosis in mice.MATERIALS AND METHODS:MK-801-treated mice were administered ACE (1 and 2 g/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. Various behavioral parameters and neurochemical estimations such as dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and glycine as well as markers of oxidative stress such as nitrite levels were measured.RESULTS:Psychosis-induced mice showed a significant elevation of immobility time in forced swim test, locomotor activity, and reduction in time of permanency in rota-rod test, escape latency time in Cook's pole test while treatment with ACE showed a significant alteration in above-mentioned behavioral parameters in MK-801-induced psychosis. Moreover, MK-801-induced psychosis in the mice showed a significant increase in DA, 5-HT, and NA levels and decrease in GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the brain. In contrast, treatment with ACE at both doses remarkably altered the neurochemical parameters. In addition, ACE-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in acetylcholinesterase, D-amino acid oxidase enzyme activity, and nitrite levels which were elevated by the administration of MK-801.CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with ACE once for 14 days (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly ameliorated the behavioral symptoms in experimentally induced psychosis by virtue of neuromodulation and decreased oxidative stress.

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