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2019

Displaying 11 - 20 of 44

Development of a Cranberry Standard for Quantification of Insoluble Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Proanthocyanidins.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gullickson ER; Krueger CG; Birmingham A; Maranan M; Reed JD.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03696 [doi]
Abstract: 

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) can be partitioned into soluble PACs, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PACs, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PACs because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PACs are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a cranberry PAC (c-PAC) standard, reflective of the structural heterogeneity of PACs found in cranberry fruit, to quantify insoluble PACs by the butanol-hydrochloric acid (BuOH-HCl) method. For the first time, a c-PAC standard enabled conversion of BuOH-HCl absorbance values (550 nm) to a weight (milligram) basis, allowing for quantification of insoluble PACs in cranberries. The use of the c-PAC reference standard for sequential analysis of soluble PACs by the method of 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and insoluble PACs by the method of BuOH-HCl provides analytical tools for the standardization of cranberry-based ingredients.

Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extracts on Cariogenic Biofilm Properties and Microbial Composition of Polymicrobial Biofilms.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Bandara HMHN; Leishman SJ; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Archives of Oral Biology. 102:1-6
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cranberry extracts on saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms with regards to biofilm biomass, acidogenicity, exopolysaccharide (EPS)/microbial biovolumes, colony forming unit (CFU) counts, and the relative abundance of specific caries- and health-associated bacteria.METHODS: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated for 2 min every 12 h over the entire biofilm growth period with 500 mug/mL cranberry extract or vehicle control. The effect of the cranberry extract on biofilm behaviour was evaluated using different assays and its influence on key cariogenic and health-associated bacterial populations was assessed with a microarray real-time quantitative PCR method.RESULTS: Cranberry-treated biofilms showed significant drops in biomass (38% reduction, P < 0.001), acidogenicity (44% reduction, P < 0.001), EPS/microbial biovolume ratios (P = 0.033), and CFU counts (51% reduction, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the cranberry extracts effected a significantly lower relative abundance of caries-associated Streptococcus sobrinus (fold change 0.004, P = 0.002) and Provotella denticola (0.002, P < 0.001), and a significantly higher relative abundance of the health-associated Streptococcus sanguinis (fold change 90.715, P = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The cranberry extract lowered biofilm biomass, acidogenicity, EPS/microbial biovolumes, CFU counts, and modulated a beneficial microbial ecological change in saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms.

Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 59(11):1816-1828
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Evaluation of the Degree of Polymerization of the Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry by Molecular Sieving and Characterization of the Low Molecular Weight Fractions by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gardana, C. Simonetti, P.
Journal: 
Molecules. 24(8):1504
Abstract: 

4-dimethylammino-cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assays quantify total proanthocyanidins (PACs) but do not provide qualitative PAC molecular weight distribution information and cannot discriminate between A- and B-type PACs. We developed an efficient method for assessing PAC molecular weight distributions. The PACs from three commercial cranberry extracts (A1-A3) were fractionated by molecular sieves with cut-offs of 3, 10, 30, 50, and 100 kDa, and each fraction was analyzed by DMAC assays. A1, A2, and A3 contained 27%, 33%, and 15% PACs, respectively. Approximately 28 PACs, 20 flavonols, and 15 phenolic acids were identified by UHPLC-DAD-Orbitrap MS in A1 and A3, while A2 contained only flavan-3-ols. Epicatechin was the main monomer in A1 and A3, and catechin was the main in A2. Procyanidin A2 was the main dimer in A1 and A3, representing more than 85% of the total dimers, while it constituted approximately only 24% of A2. A1 and A3 contained quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and their glycosides, which were totally absent in A2. In A1 and A3 the PACs were mainly distributed in the fractions 30-3 and <3 kDa, while in A2 more than 70% were present in the fraction less than 3 kDa. Overall, obtained data strongly suggests that A2 is not cranberry-derived, or is adulterated with another source of PACs.

Glycaemic Regulation, Appetite and Ex Vivo Oxidative Stress in Young Adults Following Consumption of High-Carbohydrate Cereal Bars Fortified with Polyphenol-Rich Berries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Smith TJ; Karl JP; Wilson MA; Whitney CC; Barrett A; Farhadi NF; Chen CO; Montain SJ.
Journal: 
British Journal of Nutrition. 121(9):1026-1038
Abstract: 

Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0.5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by >=5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (DELTAmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0-180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0.06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower DELTAmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0-60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0-180 min) P<0.05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1.2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.

Inhibitory Effects of Lingonberry Extract on Oral Streptococcal Biofilm Formation and Bioactivity.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Kokubu E; Kinoshita E; Ishihara K.
Journal: 
Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College. 60(1):1-9, 2019
Abstract: 

Phenolic compounds in fruits such as cranberries have been shown to promote a number of biological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenolic compound-containing lingonberry extract on oral streptococci and compare them with the known anti-cariogenic activity of cranberries. Water-soluble and polyphenol-rich fractions (Fractions I and II, respectively) were isolated from cranberries and lingonberries. The effects of those fractions on the biofilm formation ability and bioactivity of Streptococcus mutans MT8148R, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, and Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 were then evaluated. Cranberry or lingonberry Fraction II (at 0.5-1 mg/ml) significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and S. sanguinis. In contrast, cranberry or lingonberry Fraction I (at 0.5-2 mg/ml) increased biofilm formation by S. mutans and S. sobrinus, but not by S. sanguinis. Fractions I and II (at 1-2 mg/ml) also reduced the bioactivity of S. mutans, while Fraction II (at 0.5 mg/ml) enhanced the bioactivity of all tested strains. The results revealed that lingonberries contained a larger amount of polyphenol than cranberries and that they showed almost the same level of activity against the biofilm formation ability and bioactivity of oral streptococci. This indicates that polyphenol-rich lingonberry fraction offers a promising natural food derivative for prevention of dental caries.

Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Aggregate Complexation Suppresses Allergic Sensitization to Peanut by Reducing Peanut-Specific IgE in C3H/HeJ Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Bansode RR; Randolph PD; Plundrich NJ; Lila MA; Williams LL.
Journal: 
Food Chemistry. 299:125025
Abstract: 

Peanut allergy is usually lifelong and accidental exposure impose formidable risk. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of peanut proteins complexed to polyphenol extracts to reduce allergic response in C3H/HeJ mice. Mice were sensitized to peanut flour followed by exposure to amino acid diets fortified with peanut protein-polyphenol aggregates of either with low (15%; w/w) or high (40%; w/w) complexation ratios of blueberry (BB-Low and BB-High) and cranberry (CB-Low and CB-High) extracts. Treatment groups on diets with high complexation ratios of blueberry and cranberry aggregates showed significant reduction in peanut specific plasma Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Western blot analysis of spleen lysates showed CD63 protein expression was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in blueberry and cranberry complexed peanut protein supplemented diet groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that complexation of polyphenols to peanut flour can potentially lower plasma IgE of peanut-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice.

Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extracts Modulate Virulence of Streptococcus mutans-Candida albicans Biofilms Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Early Childhood Caries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Leishman SJ; Bandara H; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Pediatric Dentistry. 41(1):56-62
Abstract: 

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts on dual-species Streptococcus mutans-Candida. albicans biofilms implicated in contributing to the severity of early childhood caries. Methods: S. mutans-C. albicans biofilms were grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs (s-HA) mounted on the high-throughput Amsterdam Active Attachment model. The s-HA discs were treated with the cranberry extracts/vehicle control for five minutes just before biofilm growth and subsequently, for similar exposure times, after 12 hours and 24 hours of biofilm growth. The treated 24-hour-old biofilms were then assessed for acidogenicity, metabolic activity, exopolysaccharide (EPS)/microbial biovolumes, structural organization, and colony forming unit (CFU) counts. Results: Treatment with 500 to 1,000 mug/mL of the cranberry extracts produced significant reductions in acidogenicity and metabolic activity (P<0.0001) compared to the control-treated biofilms. A significant decrease in biovolumes of the EPS (P=0.003) and microbial biofilm components (P=0.007) was also seen. Qualitative assessment of confocal biofilm images revealed that the cranberry extract disrupted biofilm structural architecture. Finally, significantly fewer S. mutans (P=0.006) and C. albicans (P=0.036) CFUs were recovered from the cranberry-treated biofilms than from the control-treated bio-films. Conclusions: Cranberry extracts inhibited cariogenic virulence properties of S. mutans-C. albicans dual-species biofilms in an in vitro model.

Proanthocyanidin Interferes with Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Maisuria VB, Okshevsky M, Déziel E, and Tufenkji N
Journal: 
Advanced Science 6:1802333, DOI: 10.1002/advs.201802333
Abstract: 

Antibiotic resistance is spreading at an alarming rate among pathogenic bacteria in both medicine and agriculture. Interfering with the intrinsic resistance mechanisms displayed by pathogenic bacteria has the potential to make antibiotics more effective and decrease the spread of acquired antibiotic resistance. Here, it is demonstrated that cranberry proanthocyanidin (cPAC) prevents the evolution of resistance to tetracycline in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rescues antibiotic efficacy against antibiotic-exposed cells, and represses biofilm formation. It is shown that cPAC has a potentiating effect, both in vitro and in vivo, on a broad range of antibiotic classes against pathogenic E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa. Evidence that cPAC acts by repressing two antibiotic resistance mechanisms, selective membrane permeability and multidrug efflux pumps, is presented. Failure of cPAC to potentiate antibiotics against efflux pump-defective mutants demonstrates that efflux interference is essential for potentiation. The use of cPAC to potentiate antibiotics and mitigate the development of resistance could improve treatment outcomes and help combat the growing threat of antibiotic resistance

Proanthocyanidin-Chitosan Composite Nano Particles Prevent Bacterial Invasion and Colonization of Gut Epithelial Cells by Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Alfaro-Viquez E; Esquivel-Alvarado D; Madrigal-Carballo S; Krueger CG; Reed JD.
Journal: 
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 135:630-636
Abstract: 

Cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan composite nanoparticles (PAC-CHT NPs) were formulated using 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 20:1, 25:1, and 30:1 PAC to CHT weight ratio to form round shaped particles. The PAC-CHT NPs were characterized by size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, and PAC content. PAC-CHT NPs bioactivity was measured by agglutination of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) and inhibition of gut epithelial cell invasion by ExPEC. Results indicate that by increasing the PAC to CHT ratio 10:1 to 30:1 formed stable nanoparticles with diameters of 122.8 to 618.7nm, a polydispersity index of approximated 0.4 to 0.5, and a zeta potential of 34.5 to 54.4mV. PAC-CHT NPs ratio 30:1 agglutinated ExPEC and decreased the ability of ExPEC to invade epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. PAC-CHT NPs ratio 10:1 to 30:1 form stable, round-shaped, and bioactive nanoparticles for potential applications in the treatment of ExPEC bacterial infections.

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