Proanthocyanidin-Chitosan Composite Nano Particles Prevent Bacterial Invasion and Colonization of Gut Epithelial Cells by Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli.
Cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan composite nanoparticles (PAC-CHT NPs) were formulated using 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1 20:1, 25:1, and 30:1 PAC to CHT weight ratio to form round shaped particles. The PAC-CHT NPs were characterized by size, polydispersity, surface charge, morphology, and PAC content. PAC-CHT NPs bioactivity was measured by agglutination of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) and inhibition of gut epithelial cell invasion by ExPEC. Results indicate that by increasing the PAC to CHT ratio 10:1 to 30:1 formed stable nanoparticles with diameters of 122.8 to 618.7nm, a polydispersity index of approximated 0.4 to 0.5, and a zeta potential of 34.5 to 54.4mV. PAC-CHT NPs ratio 30:1 agglutinated ExPEC and decreased the ability of ExPEC to invade epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. PAC-CHT NPs ratio 10:1 to 30:1 form stable, round-shaped, and bioactive nanoparticles for potential applications in the treatment of ExPEC bacterial infections.