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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits

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Association Between Berries Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Luís A, Domingues F, Pereira L
Journal: 
Food Funct. 2018 Feb 21;9(2):740-757. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01551h.
Abstract: 

The main goal of this work was to clarify the effects of the consumption of berries on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors by performing a systematic review according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) statement, followed by a meta-analysis and a trial sequential analysis (TSA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library between April and June 2016. To be included, RCTs had to report 1 or more of the following outcomes: total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides (TG), blood pressure (BP), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). It was observed that the intake of berries reduces TC, LDL, TG, and BP while increasing the level of HDL, suggesting a beneficial effect on the control of CVDs' risk factors. Thus, the intake of berries as nutraceuticals or functional foods could be suggested for the prevention and control of CVDs.

Cranberry Juice Decreases Disease Activity in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Thimóteo NSB, Iryioda TMV, Alfieri DF, Rego BEF, Scavuzzi BM, Fatel E, Lozovoy MAB, Simão ANC, Dichi I.
Journal: 
Nutrition. 2019 Apr;60:112-117. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.010.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects; however, to our knowledge, the effects of cranberry juice consumption have not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to verify the effect of cranberry juice consumption on several inflammatory biomarkers and on the disease activity of patients with RA.METHODS:A prospective study was conducted with 41 women diagnosed with RA. The disease activity measured by Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, and several inflammatory and biochemical biomarkers were analyzed. The control group (n = 18) maintained their usual diet. The cranberry group (n = 23) consumed 500 mL/d of low-calorie cranberry juice.RESULTS:Regarding the baseline values, the cranberry group presented a decrease in the values of DAS28 (P = 0.048) and anti-CCP (P = 0.034) after 90 d of treatment, whereas changes in inflammatory biomarkers were not found.CONCLUSION:The present study indicated that cranberry juice decreases disease activity and therefore has beneficial effects for RA patients, although larger and long-term studies are needed to definitively probe this effect and to clarify the mechanisms involved.

Inhibitory Effect of Cranberry Extract on LPS Induced Inflammatory Response in RAW246.7 Cells

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Gao NY, Zhao YM, Liu DL, Sun HG, Gao XX
Journal: 
Food Research and Development; 2018. 39(16):1-7.
Abstract: 

To study the anti-inflammatory effect of cranberry extract on inflammation suppression induced by lipopolysaccharide, and explore its mechanism. Cell inflammatory model was established with RAW264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Cell viability of RAW264.7 cells treated with cranberry extract were analyzed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effect of cranberry extract on nucleus was observed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI)staining. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was determined by fluorescence analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha . RAW264.7 cells were treated with cranberry extract for 24 h, and the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, IKK alpha / beta and NF- kappa Bp65 were detected by Western blotting. The result showed that the inflammatory model was established by 5 micro g/mL lipopolysaccharide, the highest level of inflammation was reached at 24 hours. There was no significant toxic effect on RAW246.7 cells in the range of 5 micro g/mL-400 micro g/mL, and the cell nucleus was intact and without obvious damage. Compared with the model group, cranberry extract could significantly inhibit the activity of NOS and decreased the content of IL-1 beta , IL-6, TNF- alpha with the increase of dose. The Western blot result showed that cranberry extract inhibited the expression of Keap1, IKK alpha / beta , NF- kappa Bp65 and increase the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels. These results suggest that cranberry extract can inhibit the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide, and its mechanism may be related to activation of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and NF- kappa Bp65.

Chronic Consumption of a Low Calorie, High Polyphenol Cranberry Beverage Attenuates Inflammation and Improves Glucoregulation and HDL Cholesterol in Healthy Overweight Humans: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Chew B; Mathison B; Kimble L; McKay D; Kaspar K; Khoo C; Chen CO; Blumberg J.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition. 10.1007/s00394-018-1643-z [doi]
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We studied the health benefits of low calorie cranberry beverage consumption on glucoregulation, oxidative damage, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in overweight but otherwise healthy humans. METHODS: 78 overweight or obese men and women (30-70 years; BMI 27-35 kg/m2) with abdominal adiposity (waist: hip>0.8 for women and >0.9 for men; waist: height>=0.5) consumed 450 mL placebo or low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry extract beverage (CEB) daily for 8 week in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Blood and urine samples were collected after overnight fast at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily beverage consumption. Blood and urine samples were also collected during 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) challenges: (1) pre-intervention without the test beverages, (2) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at baseline (week 0), and (3) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at 8 week. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, a single CEB dose at baseline lowered endothelin-1 and elevated nitric oxide and the reduced:oxidized glutathione ratio (P<0.05). Interferon-gamma was elevated (P<0.05) after a single CEB dose at baseline; however, after 8 week of CEB intervention, fasting C-reactive protein was lower (P<0.05). CEB consumption for 8 week also reduced serum insulin and increased HDL cholesterol compared to placebo (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute dose of low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry beverage improved antioxidant status, while 8 week daily consumption reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors by improving glucoregulation, downregulating inflammatory biomarkers, and increasing HDL cholesterol.

Cranberry Anthocyanin as an Herbal Medicine Lowers Plasma Cholesterol by Increasing Excretion of Fecal Sterols.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Wang L, Zhu H, Zhao Y, Jiao R, Lei L, Chen J, Wang X, Zhang Z, Huang Y, Wang T, Chen ZY.
Journal: 
Phytomedicine; 38:98-106
Abstract: 

Background: Interest in using herbal medicines to treat the hypercholesterolemia is increasing. Cranberry extract could decrease plasma cholesterol, however, the active ingredients and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Hypothesis: The present study was to test the hypothesis that cranberry anthocyanins (CrA) were at least one of the active ingredients responsible for the cholesterol-lowering activity of cranberry fruits via a mechanism of increasing fecal sterol excretion. Methods: Forty-four hamsters were randomly divided into five groups and fed one of the five diets, namely a non-cholesterol control diet (NCD), a high-cholesterol control diet (HCD), a HCD diet supplemented with a low dose of 1% CrA (CL), a HCD diet supplemented with a high dose of 2% CrA (CH), and a HCD diet supplemented with 0.5% cholestyramine as a positive control drug (P-CTL), respectively, for six weeks. Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol was quantified using the enzymatic kits, while the gene expressions of transporters, enzymes and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism were quantified using the quantitative RT-PCR. Fecal sterols were quantified using gas chromatography (GC). Results: Plasma total cholesterol and aorta atherosclerotic plaque decreased dose-dependently with the increasing amounts of CrA added into diets. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in excretion of both neutral and acidic sterols. CrA had no effect on the mRNA levels of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1 L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP binding cassette transporter 5 (ABCG5) as well as hepatic cholesterol-7 alpha -hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase (HMG-CoA-R), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), LDL receptor (LDL-R), and Liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha ). Conclusion: CrA as an herbal medicine could favorably modify the lipoprotein profile in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet by enhancing excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols, most likely not mediated by interaction with genes of transporters, enzymes and proteins involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism

Synergistic Effect of Cranberry Extract and Losartan Against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Hepatorenal Damage Associated Cardiomyopathy in Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Galal SM; Hasan HF; Abdel-Rafei MK; El Kiki SM.
Journal: 
Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry. 1-10, 10.1080/13813455.2018.1465437 [doi]
Abstract: 

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) and/or losartan (LOS) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal damage associated cardiomyopathy in rats. To induce hepatorenal and cardiotoxicity, animals were received (AlCl3; 70mg/kg i.p.) for 8weeks day after day and treated with CRAN (100mg/kg b.wt.) orally daily for 4weeks started after 4weeks from AlCl3 injection accompanied with an administration of LOS (5mg/kg i.p.) three times weekly for 4weeks. Our data revealed that, compared to AlCl3, administration of CRAN extract and LOS produced a significant improvement which was evidenced by a significant amelioration in myocardial and vascular indices, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile and oxidative stress indices. Furthermore, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination reinforced the previous results. It could be concluded that combination of CRAN extract and LOS hindered AlCl3 induced hepatorenal damage complicated cardiomyopathy in rats.

Effects of Cranberry (Vaccinum Macrocarpon) Supplementation on Iron Status and Inflammatory Markers in Rowers.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Skarpanska-Stejnborn, A. Basta, P. Trzeciak, J. Michalska, A. Kafkas, M. E. Woitas-Slubowska, D.
Journal: 
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14(7)
Abstract: 

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with cranberry (Vaccinum macrocarpon) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepcidin and selected markers of iron metabolism in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. Methods: This double-blind study included 16 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n=9), receiving 1200 mg of cranberry extract for 6 weeks, or to the placebo group (n=7). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, one minute after completing the test, and after a 24-h recovery period. The levels of hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and myoglobin were determined, along with total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Both prior and after the supplementation, a significant post-exercise increase in the concentration of IL-6 was observed in both groups. At the end of the study period, cranberry-supplemented athletes presented with significantly higher resting, post-exercise and post-recovery levels of TAC than the controls. However, a significant exercise-induced increase in the concentrations of TNF-alpha, myoglobin and hepcidin was observed solely in the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with cranberry extract contributed to a significant strengthening of antioxidant potential in individuals exposed to strenuous physical exercise. However, supplementation did not exert direct effects on other analyzed parameters: inflammatory markers and indices of iron metabolism (TNF-alpha, hepcidin and myoglobin).

Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Heidarian E; Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Deris F; Rafieian-Kopaei M.
Journal: 
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23(7):999-1015
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. RESULTS: 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases.

Cranberry Extract Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in High-Fat-Fed Obese Mice

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Glisan SL, Ryan C, Neilson AP, Lambert JD
Journal: 
J Nutr Biochem 37:60-66
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls. Hepatic protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-C chemokine ligand 2 were reduced by 28% and 19%, respectively, following CBE supplementation. CBE significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 63%) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B, 24%), as well as a number of genes related to the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome. In conclusion, CBE reduced NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in HF-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. These effects appear to be related to mitigation of TLR4-NF kappa B related signaling; however, further studies into the underlying mechanisms of these hepatoprotective effects are needed.

Polyphenol Extracts Interfere with Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Vitro and Decrease Postprandial Endotoxemia in Human Volunteers

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Wong X, Madrid AM, Tralma K, Castillo R, Carrasco-Pozo C, Navarrete P, Beltran C, Pastene E, Gotteland M
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 26:406-417
Abstract: 

The intestinal absorption of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dietary fat has been implicated in the development of metabolic endotoxemia. This study first compared the ability of polyphenol extracts from grape, cranberry, avocado and apple to interfere with pancreatic lipase and LPS in vitro. The grape extract displayed a higher inhibitory activity of lipase (IC50=8.6+or-1.1 mg/ml) and LPS binding (IC50=90+or-1.1 micro g/ml). Then, a study was carried out in 12 normal weight and 17 overweight/obese subjects to determine the effect of this extract on the postprandial changes in plasma triacylglycerols, LPS and IL-6. The presence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), in which higher levels of bacteria and eventually LPS are present in the upper intestine, i.e. where dietary fat absorption occurs, was also evaluated. Compared with placebo, the grape extract did not affect postprandial triacylglycerolemia but decreased plasma LPS, without affecting the IL-6-associated inflammatory response. SIBO did not affect these variables.

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