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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits

Displaying 81 - 90 of 102

Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Basu A, Rhone M, Lyons TJ.
Journal: 
Nutr Rev 68(3):168-77
Abstract: 

Berries are a good source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, micronutrients, and fiber. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these constituents have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles. Human intervention studies using chokeberries, cranberries, blueberries, and strawberries (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried), or purified anthocyanin extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia, and glucose metabolism. Benefits were seen in healthy subjects and in those with existing metabolic risk factors. Underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects are believed to include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased activities of carbohydrate digestive enzymes, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression and foam cell formation. Though limited, these data support the recommendation of berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet.

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
McKay DL, Blumberg JB.
Journal: 
Nutr Rev 65(11):490-502
Abstract: 

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the three commercially important fruits native to North America. Cranberries are a particularly rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, including phenolic acids (benzoic, hydroxycinnamic, and ellagic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols). A growing body of evidence suggests that polyphenols, including those found in cranberries, may contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing the resistance of LDL to oxidation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing blood pressure, and via other anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Research regarding the bioactivity of cranberries and their constituents on risk factors for CVD is reviewed.

Cranberry and blueberry: evidence for protective effects against cancer and vascular diseases.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Neto CC
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):652-64
Abstract: 

Growing evidence from tissue culture, animal, and clinical models suggests that the flavonoid-rich fruits of the North American cranberry and blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) have the potential ability to limit the development and severity of certain cancers and vascular diseases including atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases of aging. The fruits contain a variety of phytochemicals that could contribute to these protective effects, including flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins; substituted cinnamic acids and stilbenes; and triterpenoids such as ursolic acid and its esters. Cranberry and blueberry constituents are likely to act by mechanisms that counteract oxidative stress, decrease inflammation, and modulate macromolecular interactions and expression of genes associated with disease processes. The evidence suggests a potential role for dietary cranberry and blueberry in the prevention of cancer and vascular diseases, justifying further research to determine how the bioavailability and metabolism of berry phytonutrients influence their activity in vivo.

Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, Vider J, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK
Journal: 
Free Radic Res 36(9):1023-31
Abstract: 

Recent studies show that edible berries may have potent chemopreventive properties. Anti-angiogenic approaches to prevent and treat cancer represent a priority area in investigative tumor biology. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role for the vascularization of tumors. The vasculature in adult skin remains normally quiescent. However, skin retains the capacity for brisk initiation of angiogenesis during inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and skin cancers. We sought to test the effects of multiple berry extracts on inducible VEGF expression by human HaCaT keratinocytes. Six berry extracts (wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seed, and strawberry) and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) were studied. The extracts and uptake of their constituents by HaCaT were studied using a multi-channel HPLC-CoulArray approach. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by ORAC. Cranberry, elderberry and raspberry seed samples were observed to possess comparable ORAC values. The antioxidant capacity of these samples was significantly lower than that of the other samples studied. The ORAC values of strawberry powder and GSPE were higher than cranberry, elderberry or raspberry seed but significantly lower than the other samples studied. Wild bilberry and blueberry extracts possessed the highest ORAC values. Each of the berry samples studied significantly inhibited both H2O2 as well as TNF alpha induced VEGF expression by the human keratinocytes. This effect was not shared by other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol or GSPE but was commonly shared by pure flavonoids. Matrigel assay using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells showed that edible berries impair angiogenesis.

Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in men after short-term cranberry juice consumption.

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Metabolism 54(7):856-61
Abstract: 

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is closely implicated in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), and thus, reducing LDL susceptibility to oxidation with antoxidants could be of importance in CVD prevention. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds found in a large selection of fruits and vegetables, have been characterized as having a strong antioxidant potential, and intake of flavonoid-rich foods has been related to decreased morbidity and mortality from heart disease. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich cranberry juice supplementation on plasma lipoprotein levels and LDL oxidation. For that purpose, 21 men (age +/- SD, 38 +/- 8 years) were enrolled in a 14-day intervention and instructed to drink cranberry juice 7 mL/kg body weight per day. Physical and metabolic measures including plasma lipid and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) concentrations as well as antioxidant capacity were performed before and after the intervention. At baseline, we found that plasma OxLDL levels were significantly associated with waist circumference ( r = 0.47, P = .0296) as well as plasma triglyceride ( r = 0.68, P = .0007) and apolipoprotein B ( r = 0.91, P

Cranberry flavonoids, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Reed J
Journal: 
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 42(3 Suppl):301-16
Abstract: 

Atherosclerosis is the deposition of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids in arterial walls. Atherosclerosis causes cardiovascular disease that lead to heart attacks and stroke. Mortality from these diseases is the leading cause of death in the U.S. Atherogenisis starts with the uptake of oxidized LDL by endothelial macrophages, the accumulation of foam cells in the intima of the artery and the formation of fatty streaks. Research indicates that consumption of flavonoids in foods and beverages may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments with flavonoids demonstrate that flavonoids are dietary antioxidants and inhibit LDL oxidation, inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion, inhibit enzymes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism that affect the immune response to oxidized LDL and their uptake by endothelial macrophages, may induce endothelium-dependent vassorelaxation, and may increase reverse cholesterol transport and decrease total and LDL cholesterol. Cranberries contain both hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The cranberry flavonoids belong to three groups: anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. This article reviews the literature on the effects of flavonoids on atherosclerosis with an emphasis on the potential effects of the flavonols and proanthocyanidins in cranberries.

Evidences of the cardioprotective potential of fruits: the case of cranberries.

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Couillard C
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):692-701
Abstract: 

Eating a healthy balanced diet, is one of the most important and relevant ways to delay and prevent various health complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among the nutritional factors that have been investigated in recent years, dietary fat intake may be the one that has been most targeted. However, there is also clear epidemiological evidence that increased fruits and vegetables intake can significantly reduce the risk of CVD, an effect that has been suggested to be resulting to a significant extent, from the high polyphenol content of these foods. Numerous polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids have been identified as having strong antioxidant properties. Most interesting is the fact that, in addition to being one of the largest groups of antioxidant phytochemicals, flavonoids are also an integral part of the human diet as they are found in most fruits and vegetables. Cranberries are one of the most important sources of flavonoids that have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. Thus, consumption of cranberries or their related products could be of importance not only in the maintenance of health but also in preventing CVD. The following review will present evidences supported for the most part by clinical observations that cranberries can exert potentially healthy effects for your heart.

Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Br J Nutr 96(2):357-64
Abstract: 

A low HDL-cholesterol concentration is an independent risk factor for CVD. Studies have suggested that flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective, and a favourable impact on circulating HDL-cholesterol concentrations has been suggested to partially explain this association. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming increasing daily doses of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) on the plasma lipid profile of abdominally obese men. For that purpose, thirty men (mean age 51 (SD 10) years) consumed increasing doses of CJC during three successive periods of 4 weeks (125 ml/d, 250 ml/d, 500 ml/d). Before the study and after each phase, we measured changes in physical and metabolic variables. We noted a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration after the consumption of 250 ml CJC/d (+8.6+/-14.0% v. 0 ml CJC/d; P

Low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation reduces plasma oxidized LDL and cell adhesion molecule concentrations in men.

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Br J Nutr 99(2):352-9
Abstract: 

Elevated circulating concentrations of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and cell adhesion molecules are considered to be relevant markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation which are implicated in the development of CVD. On the other hand, it has been suggested that dietary flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective through possible favourable impacts on LDL particle oxidation and endothelial activation. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of the daily consumption of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail on plasma OxLDL, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin concentrations in men. Thirty men (mean age 51 (sd 10) years) were recruited and asked to consume increasing daily doses of cranberry juice cocktail (125, 250 and 500 ml/d) over three successive periods of 4 weeks. Plasma OxLDL and adhesion molecule concentrations were measured by ELISA before and after each phase. We noted a significant decrease in plasma OxLDL concentrations following the intervention (P

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 50(25):7449-54
Abstract: 

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

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