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Drug Interactions

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Food-Drug Interactions Precipitated by Fruit Juices other than Grapefruit Juice: An Update Review.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Chen M; Zhou SY; Fabriaga E; Zhang PH; Zhou Q.
Journal: 
Journal of Food & Drug Analysis. 26(2S):S61-S71
Abstract: 

This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help minimize their occurrence. Much attention should be paid to adolescents and the elderly who ingest medications with drinking fruit juices or consume fresh fruits during drug treatment. Meanwhile, more researches in this interesting issue should be conducted.

Oral Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Ester Rich Fruit Juices and Pharmaceutical Excipients with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Male Wistar Rats.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Shailender J; Ravi PR; Saha P; Myneni S.
Journal: 
Xenobiotica http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2016.1269375
Abstract: 

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of intestinal esterases on the absorption process of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). 2. The esterase inhibition capacity of fruit juices (FJs) rich in ester linkages and pharmaceutical excipients (having ester bonds) was performed in vitro by incubating TDF with each FJ and excipient in the intestinal washings. The ex vivo everted gut sac model was also used to evaluate the absorption enhancement capacity of these FJs and excipients. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed by concomitant administration of TDF with each of the selected FJs and excipients. 3. The in vitro and ex vivo studies showed that cremophor-EL and all FJs prevented the metabolism of TDF with grapefruit juice (GFJ) having the highest level of inhibition. Further, the permeability flux of the monoester form of tenofovir was increased by 113% and 212% by cranberry juice (CBJ) and GFJ, respectively. The in vivo studies also showed that both CBJ and GFJ enhanced the oral bioavailability of TDF as the AUC was increased by 24% and 97%, respectively. 4. These results indicate that the prevention of the metabolic conversion of TDF to its monoester form is crucial in increasing the oral absorption of TDF.

Inhibitory Effect of Six Herbal Extracts on CYP2C8 Enzyme Activity in Human Liver Microsomes.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Albassam AA, Mohamed ME, Frye RF
Journal: 
Xenobiotica 45(5):406-12
Abstract: 

1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean +/- SE) values were 24.7 +/- 2.7 mug/ml for cranberry and 15.4 +/- 1.7 mug/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins have anti-biofilm properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Ulrey RK, Barksdale SM, Zhou W, van Hoek ML
Journal: 
BMC Complement Altern Med 14:499.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Bacteria within a biofilm are phenotypically more resistant to antibiotics, desiccation, and the host immune system, making it an important virulence factor for many microbes. Cranberry juice has long been used to prevent
infections of the urinary tract, which are often related to biofilm formation. Recent studies have found that the A-type proanthocyanidins from cranberries have anti-biofilm properties against Escherichia coli.
METHODS: Using crystal violet biofilm staining, resazurin metabolism assays, and confocal imaging, we examined the ability of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) to disrupt the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the proteomic effects of PAC treatment. We also performed synergy assays and in vitro and in vivo infections to determine whether PACs, alone and in combination with gentamicin, could contribute to the killing of P. aeruginosa and the survival of cell lines and G. mellonella. RESULTS: Cranberry PACs reduced P. aeruginosa swarming motility. Cranberry PACs significantly disrupted the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Proteomics analysis revealed significantly different proteins expressed following PAC treatment. In addition, we found that PACs potentiated the antibiotic activity of gentamicin in an in vivo model of infection using G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that A-type proanthocyanidins may be a useful therapeutic against the biofilm-mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa and
should be further tested.

Effect of standardized cranberry extract on the activity and expression of selected biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and intestine.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Bártíková H, Boušová I, Jedličková P, Lněničková K, Skálová L, Szotáková B
Journal: 
Molecules 19(9):14948-60.
Abstract: 

The use of dietary supplements containing cranberry extract is a common way to prevent urinary tract infections. As consumption of these supplements containing a mixture of concentrated anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins has increased, interest in their possible interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes has grown. In this in vivo study, rats were treated with a standardized cranberry extract
(CystiCran®) obtained from Vaccinium macrocarpon in two dosage schemes (14 days, 0.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day; 1 day, 1.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contained in this extract on the activity and expression of
intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B and CYP3A), carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Administration of cranberry extract led to moderate increases in the activities of hepatic CYP3A (by 34%), CYP1A1 (by 38%), UGT (by 40%), CBR1 (by 17%) and GST (by 13%), while activities of these enzymes in the small intestine were unchanged. No changes in the relative amounts of these proteins were found. Taken together, the interactions of cranberry extract with simultaneously administered drugs seem not to be serious.

Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Choi EJ, Park JB, Yoon KD, Bae SK
Journal: 
Food Chem Toxicol 72:13-9.
Abstract: 

In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also
investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

Can cranberry extract and vitamin C + Zn supplements affect the in vivo activity of paraoxonase 1, antioxidant potential, and lipid status?.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Begcevic I, Simundic AM, Nikolac N, Dobrijevic S, Rajkovic MG, Tesija-Kuna A
Journal: 
Clin Lab 59(9-10):1053-60
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The modern way of life exposes us to substantial oxidative stress, putting the focus on the research of antioxidant effects of dietary supplements. Recent studies have shown that the effectiveness of particular vitamins and herbal preparations might have an effect on paraoxonase activity. Paraoxonase 1 is an HDL associated enzyme which prevents the oxidation of LDL. Several studies have shown the beneficial effect of some dietary components to the activity of paraoxonase. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cranberry extract and vitamin C and zinc preparations (vitamin C + Zn) on serum paraoxonase 1 activity, antioxidant status, and glucose and lipid concentration.

METHODS: The study included 31 healthy volunteers (median age 24 years). They were divided into 3 groups according to the intervention type and smoking status and exposed to commercially available preparations of the cranberry extract (2 g/day) and vitamin C + Zn (300 mg/day) during 4 weeks.

RESULTS: The results have shown that there is a significant increase in the activity of the paraoxonase 1 in nonsmokers after the intervention with the cranberry extract as well as with vitamin C + Zn preparations. Also, total antioxidant status increased in the non-smokers subgroup after intervention with vitamin C + Zn. However, the lipid profile did not change significantly in response to antioxidant preparations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that antioxidant supplements can increase the antioxidant potential of an organism as well as paraoxonase 1 activity. This observation is pointing to the potential complementary role of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis.

Cranberry juice ingestion and clinical drug-drug interaction potentials; review of case studies and perspectives.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Srinivas NR
Journal: 
J Pharm Pharm Sci 16(2):289-303
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice is a popular beverage with many health benefits. It has anthocyanins to supplement dietary needs. Based on in vitro evidence cranberry juice is an inhibitor of CYP enzymes and at higher amounts as potent as ketoconazole (CYP3A) and fluconazole (CYP2C9). There is, however, a discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo observations with respect to a number of substrates (cyclosporine, warfarin, flurbiprofen, tizanidine, diclofenac, amoxicillin, ceflacor); with the exception of a single report on midazolam, where there was a moderate increase in the AUC of midazolam in subjects pre-treated with cranberry juice. However, another study questions the clinical relevancy of in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction between cranberry juice and midazolam. The controversy may be due to a) under in vitro conditions all anthocyanin principles may be available to have a concerted effort in CYP inhibition; however, limited anthocyanin principles may be bioavailable with varying low levels in the in vivo studies; b) a faster clearance of the active anthocyanin principles under in vivo conditions may occur, leading to low threshold levels for CYP inhibition; c) efficient protein binding and/or rapid tissue uptake of the substrate may have precluded the drug availability to the enzymes in the in vivo studies. With respect to pharmacodynamic aspects, while the debate continues on the issue of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice, the summation of the pharmacodynamics data obtained in patients and healthy subjects from different prospectively designed and controlled clinical trials does not provide overwhelming support for the existence of a pharmacodynamic drug interaction for normal cranberry juice ingestion. However, it is apparent that consumption of large quantities of cranberry juice (about 1-2 L per day) or cranberry juice concentrates in supplements for an extended time period (>3-4 weeks) may temporally alter the effect of warfarin. Therefore, the total avoidance of cranberry juice by warfarin users may not be warranted by the published studies. However, in certain situations of higher intake of cranberry juice or concentrate there may be a need to monitor both warfarin doses and its effect.

Effects of anthocyanins on the AhR-CYP1A1 signaling pathway in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Kamenickova A, Anzenbacherova E, Pavek P, Soshilov AA, Denison MS, Zapletalova M, Anzenbacher P, Dvorak Z
Journal: 
Toxicol Lett 221(1):1-8
Abstract: 

Anthocyanins are plant pigments occurring in flowers and berry fruits. Since a phenomenon of food-drug interactions is increasingly emerging, we examined the effects of 21 major anthocyanins and the extracts from 3 food supplements containing anthocyanins on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 signaling pathway in human hepatocytes and human hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cells. Pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (PEL-2) and cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside (CYA-3) dose-dependently activated AhR, as revealed by gene reporter assay. PEL-2 and CYA-3 induced CYP1A1 mRNA but not protein in HepG2 and LS174T cells. Neither compounds induced CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in four different primary human hepatocytes cultures. The effects of PEL-2 and CYA-3 on AhR occurred by ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms, respectively, as demonstrated by ligand binding assay. In a direct enzyme inhibition assay, none of the antocyanins tested inhibited the CYP1A1 marker activity to less than 50% even at 100 μM concentration. PEL-2 and CYA-3 at 100 μM inhibited CYP1A1 to 79% and 65%, respectively. In conclusion, with exception of PEL-2 and CYA-3, there were no effects of 19 major anthocyanins and 3 food supplements containing anthocyanins on AhR-CYP1A1 signaling, implying zero potential of these compounds for food-drug interactions with respect to AhR-CYP1A1 pathway.

Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Kim E, Sy-Cordero A, Graf TN, Brantley SJ, Paine MF, Oberlies NH
Journal: 
Planta Med. 77(3):265-70
Abstract: 

infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and

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