Inhibitory Effects of Cranberry Juice and Its Components on Intestinal OATP1A2 and OATP2B1: Identification of Avicularin as a Novel Inhibitor
Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 and OATP2B1 mediate the intestinal absorption of drugs. This study aimed to identify fruit juices or fruit juice components that inhibit OATPs and assess the risk of associated food-drug interactions. Inhibitory potency was assessed by examining the uptake of [H-3]estrone 3-sulfate and [H-3]fexofenadine into HEK293 cells expressing OATP1A2 or OATP2B1. In vivo experiments were conducted using mice to evaluate the effects of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered fexofenadine. Of eight examined fruit juices, cranberry juice inhibited the functions of both OATPs most potently. Avicularin, a component of cranberry juice, was identified as a novel OATP inhibitor. It exhibited IC50 values of 9.0 and 37 mu M for the inhibition of estrone 3-sulfate uptake mediated by OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, respectively. A pharmacokinetic experiment revealed that fexofenadine exposure was significantly reduced (by 50%) by cranberry juice. Cranberry juice may cause drug interactions with OATP substrates.