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Glycemic Response and Type II Diabetes

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Dietary Berries, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Human Feeding Trials.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Calvano, A. Izuora, K. Oh, E. C. Ebersole, J. L. Lyons, T. J. Basu, A.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6227-6243
Abstract: 

Dietary berries are a rich source of several nutrients and phytochemicals and in recent years, accumulating evidence suggests they can reduce risks of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the role of dietary berries (taken as fresh, frozen, or other processed forms) on insulin resistance and biomarkers of T2D in human feeding studies. Reported feeding trials involve different berries taken in different forms, and consequently differences in nutritional or polyphenol composition must be considered in their interpretation. Commonly consumed berries, especially cranberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance, and in adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In non-acute long-term studies, these berries either alone, or in combination with other functional foods or dietary interventions, can improve glycemic and lipid profiles, blood pressure and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. Studies specifically in people with T2D are few, and more knowledge is needed. Nevertheless, existing evidence, although sparse, suggests that berries have an emerging role in dietary strategies for the prevention of diabetes and its complications in adults. Despite the beneficial effects of berries on diabetes prevention and management, they must be consumed as part of a healthy and balanced diet.

Role of Berry Bioactive Compounds on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Basu, A.
Journal: 
Nutrients; 2019. 11(9):1983
Abstract: 

Blood lipids are an important biomarker of cardiovascular health and disease. Among the lipid biomarkers that have been widely used to monitor and predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD), elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol (C), as well as elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, deserve special attention in their predictive abilities, and thus have been the targets of several therapeutic and dietary approaches to improving lipid profiles. Among natural foods and nutraceuticals, dietary berries are a rich source of nutrients, fiber, and various types of phytochemicals. Berries as whole fruits, juices, and purified extracts have been shown to lower total and LDL-C, and increase HDL-C in clinical studies in participants with elevated blood lipids, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This short review aimed to further discuss the mechanisms and magnitude of the lipid-lowering effects of dietary berries, with emphasis on reported clinical studies. Based on the emerging evidence, colorful berry fruits may thus be included in a healthy diet for the prevention and management of CVD.

Glycaemic Regulation, Appetite and Ex Vivo Oxidative Stress in Young Adults Following Consumption of High-Carbohydrate Cereal Bars Fortified with Polyphenol-Rich Berries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Smith TJ; Karl JP; Wilson MA; Whitney CC; Barrett A; Farhadi NF; Chen CO; Montain SJ.
Journal: 
British Journal of Nutrition. 121(9):1026-1038
Abstract: 

Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0.5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by >=5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (DELTAmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0-180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0.06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower DELTAmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0-60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0-180 min) P<0.05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1.2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.

Impact of Cranberry Juice Enriched with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Adjunct with Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment on Metabolic Control and Periodontal Status in Type 2 Patients with Diabetes with Periodontal Disease.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Javid, A. Z. Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, L. Ashrafzadeh, E. Yousefimanesh, H. A. Zakerkish, M. Angali, K. A. Ravanbakhsh, M. Babaei, H.
Journal: 
Journal of the American College of Nutrition;37(1):71-79.
Abstract: 

Objectives: Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with a favorable glycemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes and also are beneficial for oral health. Because type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease have a physiological relationship, this study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that cranberry juice enriched with omega-3 will improve glycemic and lipid profiles and periodontal status in patients with diabetes with periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 41 patients with diabetes (age 35-67 years) with periodontal disease were recruited and randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (C; n=12), receiving omega-3 (I1; n=10, 1 g/twice daily), cranberry juice (I2; n=9, 200 ml, twice daily), and cranberry juice enriched with omega-3 (I3; n=10, 200 ml, containing 1 g omega-3) twice daily for 8 weeks. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was provided for all patients during the study. Fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, probing depth, anthropometric indices, and 3-day 24-hour dietary recalls were measured pre- and postintervention. Results: Glycated hemoglobin was decreased significantly in I1 and I3 groups. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased significantly in the I3 group compared to baseline and compared to I1 and I2 groups. Probing depth was significantly reduced in all groups postintervention. Conclusion: Consumption of cranberry juice enriched with omega-3 can be beneficial as adjuvant therapy with nonsurgical periodontal therapy in decreasing glycated hemoglobin, increasing HDL-C, and improving periodontal status in patients with diabetes with periodontal disease.

A Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extract Reverses Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis Independently of Body Weight Loss.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Anhe FF; Nachbar RT; Varin TV; Vilela V; Dudonne S; Pilon G; Fournier M; Lecours MA; Desjardins Y; Roy D; Levy E; Marette A.
Journal: 
Molecular Metabolism. 6(12):1563-1573
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from various sources can prevent obesity and associated gastro-hepatic and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, whether such extracts can reverse obesity-linked metabolic alterations remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a polyphenol-rich extract from cranberry (CE) to reverse obesity and associated metabolic disorders in DIO-mice. METHODS: Mice were pre-fed either a Chow or a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet for 13 weeks to induce obesity and then treated either with CE (200mg/kg, Chow+CE, HFHS+CE) or vehicle (Chow, HFHS) for 8 additional weeks. RESULTS: CE did not reverse weight gain or fat mass accretion in Chow- or HFHS-fed mice. However, HFHS+CE fully reversed hepatic steatosis and this was linked to upregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism (e.g., PPARalpha) and downregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes (eg, COX2, TNFalpha) in the liver. These findings were associated with improved glucose tolerance and normalization of insulin sensitivity in HFHS+CE mice. The gut microbiota of HFHS+CE mice was characterized by lower Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and a drastic expansion of Akkermansia muciniphila and, to a lesser extent, of Barnesiella spp, as compared to HFHS controls. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CE, without impacting body weight or adiposity, can fully reverse HFHS diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis while triggering A. muciniphila blooming in the gut microbiota, thus underscoring the gut-liver axis as a primary target of cranberry polyphenols.

Evaluation of Phenolic Phytochemical Enriched Commercial Plant Extracts on the In Vitro Inhibition of alpha-Glucosidase.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Brown A; Anderson D; Racicot K; Pilkenton SJ; Apostolidis E.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Nutrition. 4:56
Abstract: 

Green tea (GT), cranberry (CR), and tart cherry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit yeast alpha-glucosidase, relevant to glucose uptake. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and in vitro inhibitory activity of yeast alpha-glucosidase were examined for the extracts in the present study. GT had higher TPC and antioxidant activity, but CR demonstrated a greater alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity, on phenolic basis. CR was fractionated using LH-20 column chromatography into two fractions: 30% methanol (CME) and 70% acetone (CAE). TPC, antioxidant activity, and yeast alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity were determined for the fractions. CAE had a greater TPC and antioxidant activity than CME, but the two fractions had a synergistic effect when inhibiting yeast alpha-glucosidase. Our findings suggest that CR has the greatest potential to possibly manage post-prandial blood glucose levels via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase, and that the effect is through synergistic activity of the extract's phenolic compounds.

Cranberries Improve Postprandial Glucose Excursions in type 2 Diabetes

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Schell J; Betts NM; Foster M; Scofield RH; Basu A.
Journal: 
Food & Function, DOI:10.1039/C7FO00900C
Abstract: 

Recent research supports a favorable role of cranberries on cardiometabolic health. Postprandial metabolism, especially hyperglycemia, has been shown to be an independent cardiovascular risk and few clinical studies have reported the role of berries in improving postprandial dysmetabolism. We investigated the postprandial effects of dried cranberries following a high-fat breakfast challenge in obese participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), in a randomized crossover trial. Blood draw and vascular measurements were conducted at fasting, 1, 2 and 4 hours (h), following the consumption of a fast-food style high-fat breakfast (70 g fat, 974 kcal) with or without cranberries (40 g). Analyses of our data (n = 25; BMI (kg m-2) (mean +/- s.d.) = 39.5 +/- 6.5; age (years) = 56 +/- 6) revealed that postprandial increases in glucose were significantly lower in the cranberry vs. control at 2 & 4 h (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in insulin, insulin resistance evaluated by homeostasis model assessment, lipid profiles and blood pressure between the cranberry and control groups. Among the biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation, postprandial serum interleukin-18 and malondialdehyde were significantly lower at 4 h, and serum total nitrite was higher at 2 h in the cranberry vs. control group (all p < 0.05). No effects were noted on C-reactive protein or interlukin-6. Overall, dietary cranberries had notable effects in improving high-fat breakfast induced postprandial glucose and selected biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation in participants with T2DM. These findings provide evidence that adding whole cranberries to a high-fat meal may improve postprandial blood glucose management and warrant further investigation.

Strawberry and Cranberry Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant, Non-Diabetic Adults: a Parallel, Double-Blind, Controlled and Randomised Clinical Trial.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Paquette M, Medina Larqué AS, Weisnagel SJ, Desjardins Y, Marois J, Pilon G, Dudonné S, Marette A, Jacques H.
Journal: 
Br J Nutr.117(4):519-531
Abstract: 

Plant-derived foods rich in polyphenols are associated with several cardiometabolic health benefits, such as reduced postprandial hyperglycaemia. However, their impact on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique remains under-studied. We aimed to determine the effects of strawberry and cranberry polyphenols (SCP) on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers in free-living insulin-resistant overweight or obese human subjects (n 41) in a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial. The experimental group consumed an SCP beverage (333 mg SCP) daily for 6 weeks, whereas the Control group received a flavour-matched Control beverage that contained 0 mg SCP. At the beginning and at the end of the experimental period, insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity increased in the SCP group as compared with the Control group (+0·9 (sem 0·5)×10-3 v. -0·5 (sem 0·5)×10-3 mg/kg per min per pmol, respectively, P=0·03). Compared with the Control group, the SCP group had a lower first-phase insulin secretion response as measured by C-peptide levels during the first 30 min of the OGTT (P=0·002). No differences were detected between the two groups for lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. A 6-week dietary intervention with 333 mg of polyphenols from strawberries and cranberries improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese non-diabetic, insulin-resistant human subjects but was not effective in improving other cardiometabolic risk factors.

Cranberry Supplement and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese and Overweight Females

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Eftekhari MH, Allaei M, Khosropanah S, Rajaeifard A, Sohrabi Z
Journal: 
Jentashapir Journal of Health Research. 2016 Apr;7(3):e37255
Abstract: 

Background: Due to the higher susceptibility of metabolic syndrome (MS)-afflicted patients to different metabolic abnormalities, treatment programs are vital parts of MS management. One of the possible adjunctive therapies is taking cranberry supplements as important sources of polyphenols that bear antioxidative and health-promoting properties.Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract on some components of metabolic syndrome.Patients and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 48 obese and overweight females diagnosed with MS were assigned into two groups to receive cranberry supplement or placebo for an eight-week period. Serum glucose, lipoproteins, inflammatory markers and blood pressure were evaluated at the baseline and at the end of the treatment phase.Results: Cranberry supplements had no effect on any of the variables including glucose, insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and blood pressure, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which significantly increased (P < 0.05) at the eighth-week period compared with the placebo samples.Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that cranberry supplement might only ameliorate low HDL-c as a component of metabolic syndrome, and not the other risk factors of MS.

Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome?

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Anhe FF; Pilon G; Roy D; Desjardins Y; Levy E; Marette A
Journal: 
Gut Microbes. 7(2):146-53
Abstract: 

The gut and its bacterial colonizers are now well characterized as key players in whole-body metabolism, opening new avenues of research and generating great expectation for new treatments against obesity and its cardiometabolic complications. As diet is the main environmental factor affecting the gut microbiota, it has been suggested that fruits and vegetables, whose consumption is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, may carry phytochemicals that could help maintain intestinal homeostasis and metabolic health. We recently demonstrated that oral administration of a cranberry extract rich in polyphenols prevented diet-induced obesity and several detrimental features of the metabolic syndrome in association with a remarkable increase in the abundance of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia in the gut microbiota of mice. This addendum provides an extended discussion in light of recent discoveries suggesting a mechanistic link between polyphenols and Akkermansia, also contemplating how this unique microorganism may be exploited to fight the metabolic syndrome.

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