Role of Berry Bioactive Compounds on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.
Blood lipids are an important biomarker of cardiovascular health and disease. Among the lipid biomarkers that have been widely used to monitor and predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD), elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol (C), as well as elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, deserve special attention in their predictive abilities, and thus have been the targets of several therapeutic and dietary approaches to improving lipid profiles. Among natural foods and nutraceuticals, dietary berries are a rich source of nutrients, fiber, and various types of phytochemicals. Berries as whole fruits, juices, and purified extracts have been shown to lower total and LDL-C, and increase HDL-C in clinical studies in participants with elevated blood lipids, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This short review aimed to further discuss the mechanisms and magnitude of the lipid-lowering effects of dietary berries, with emphasis on reported clinical studies. Based on the emerging evidence, colorful berry fruits may thus be included in a healthy diet for the prevention and management of CVD.