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A Review of Nonantibiotic Agents to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gill CM; Hughes MA; LaPlante KL.
Journal: 
J AM MED DIR ASSOC 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.04.018 [doi]
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: This article provides a comprehensive literature review on nonantibiotic agents used for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women >=45 years of age.DESIGN: A structured review was performed by conducting a literature search to identify relevant studies pertaining to the use of nonantibiotic agents to prevent UTIs in women who were perimenopausal through postmenopausal. Recommendations were made for or against the use of each nonantibiotic agent, unless data were unavailable. Levels of evidence were assigned to each recommendation made.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies on the prevention of UTIs with women subjects >=45 years of age in the community, inpatient, and long-term care settings were considered for inclusion.MEASURE: The efficacy and safety of using ascorbic acid, cranberry products, d-mannose, estrogens, lactobacilli, and methenamine hippurate for prevention of UTIs was assessed.RESULTS: There is evidence to support use of estrogens (A-I) in postmenopausal women, and cranberry capsules (C-I) in women >=45 years of age for the prevention of UTIs. There was a lack of evidence to make recommendations for or against the use of ascorbic acid, cranberry juice, cranberry capsules with high proanthocyanidin (PAC) content, d-mannose, lactobacillus, and methenamine hippurate in this population.CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Current studies support that estrogens and cranberry capsules may have a role in preventing UTIs in women >=45 years of age. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these nonantibiotic agents and how they may be used to decrease antibiotic use.

Arabinoxyloglucan Oligosaccharides May Contribute to the Antiadhesive Properties of Porcine Urine after Cranberry Consumption.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Coleman CM; Auker KM; Killday KB; Azadi P; Black I; Ferreira D.
Journal: 
Journal of Natural Products. 82(3):589-605
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice is traditionally used for the prevention of urinary tract infections. Human urine produced after cranberry juice consumption can prevent Escherichia coli adhesion, but the antiadhesive urinary metabolites responsible have not been conclusively identified. Adult female sows were therefore fed spray-dried cranberry powder (5 g/kg/day), and urine was collected via catheter. Urine fractions were tested for antiadhesion activity using a human red blood cell (A+) anti-hemagglutination assay with uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli. Components were isolated from fractions of interest using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography followed by HPLC on normal and reversed-phase sorbents with evaporative light scattering detection. Active urine fractions were found to contain a complex series of oligosaccharides but not proanthocyanidins, and a single representative arabinoxyloglucan octasaccharide was isolated in sufficient quantity and purity for full structural characterization by chemical derivatization and NMR spectroscopic methods. Analogous cranberry material contained a similar complex series of arabinoxyloglucan oligosaccharides that exhibited antiadhesion properties in preliminary testing. These results indicate that oligosaccharides structurally related to those found in cranberry may contribute to the antiadhesion properties of urine after cranberry consumption.

Biotransformation of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins to Probiotic Metabolites by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Enhances Their Anticancer Activity in HepG2 Cells In Vitro.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Rupasinghe HPV; Parmar I; Neir SV.
Journal: 
Oxidative medicine & cellular longevity. 2019:4750795
Abstract: 

This study was designed to unravel the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the bioconversion of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxicity of resulting metabolites to hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Crude (CR) and flavonol+dihydrochalcone- (FL+DHC-), anthocyanin- (AN-), proanthocyanidin- (PR-), and phenolic acid+catechin- (PA+C-) rich fractions were subjected to fermentation with L. rhamnosus at 37degreeC for 12, 24, and 48 h under anaerobic conditions. The major metabolites produced by bioconversion of polyphenols were 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, catechol, and pyrogallol. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of the biotransformed extracts was compared to their parent extracts using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that PR-biotransformed extract completely inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 values of 47.8 and 20.1 mug/mL at 24 and 48 h, respectively. An insight into the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that the cytotoxic effects of PR at 24 h incubation were mitochondria-controlled and not by proapoptotic caspase-3/7 dependent. The present findings suggest that the application of a bioconversion process using probiotic bacteria can enhance the pharmacological activities of cranberry proanthocyanidins by generating additional biologically active metabolites.

Comparative Susceptibility Study Against Pathogens Using Fermented Cranberry Juice and Antibiotics.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Mantzourani I; Bontsidis CA; Plessas S; Alexopoulos A; Theodoridou E; Tsigalou C; Voidarou C; Douganiotis G; Kazakos SL; Stavropoulou E; Bezirtzoglou E.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 10:1294
Abstract: 

In the present study, unfermented and fermented cranberry juice in combination with the Antibiotics vancomycin and tigecycline were tested for their antimicrobial activity. Cranberry juice was fermented with a recently isolated potentially probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei K5. The tested strains selected for this purpose were Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus. The methods followed were the determination of zones inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI). Tigecycline together with fermented juice exhibited larger Zones of Inhibition (ZOI) in strains of E. faecium (65 +/- 4.8 mm) compared to the respective ZOI with tigecycline and unfermented juice (no zone). The same outcome was also obtained with E. cloacae. Vancomycin together with fermented juice exhibited larger ZOI in strains of E. faecium (28 +/- 2.2 mm) compared to the respective ZOI with vancomycin and unfermented juice (24 +/- 2.3 mm). The lowest MIC values were recorded when tigecycline was combined with fermented cranberry juice against S. aureus strains, followed by the same combination of juice and antibiotic against E. cloacae strains. FICI revealed synergistic effects between fermented juice and tigecycline against a strain of E. faecium (A2020) and a strain of E. faecalis (A1940). Such effects were also observed in the case of fermented juice in combination with vancomycin against a strain of S. aureus (S18), as well as between fermented juice and tigecycline against E. cloacae (E1005 and E1007) strains. The results indicate that the antibacterial activity of juice fermented with the potentially probiotic L. paracasei K5 may be due to synergistic effects between some end fermentation products and the antibiotic agents examined.

Constitutively Higher Level of GSTT2 in Esophageal Tissues From African Americans Protects Cells Against DNA Damage.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Ferrer-Torres D; Nancarrow DJ; Steinberg H; Wang Z; Kuick R; Weh KM; Mills RE; Ray D; Ray P; Lin J; Chang AC; Reddy RM; Orringer MB; Canto MI; Shaheen NJ; Kresty LA; Chak A; Wang TD; Rubenstein JH; Beer DG.
Journal: 
Gastroenterology. 156(5):1404-1415
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND & AIMS: African American and European American individuals have a similar prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), yet esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) disproportionately affects European American individuals. We investigated whether the esophageal squamous mucosa of African American individuals has features that protect against GERD-induced damage, compared with European American individuals. METHODS: We performed transcriptional profile analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa tissues from 20 African American and 20 European American individuals (24 with no disease and 16 with Barrett's esophagus and/or EAC). We confirmed our findings in a cohort of 56 patients and analyzed DNA samples from patients to identify associated variants. Observations were validated using matched genomic sequence and expression data from lymphoblasts from the 1000 Genomes Project. A panel of esophageal samples from African American and European American subjects was used to confirm allele-related differences in protein levels. The esophageal squamous-derived cell line Het-1A and a rat esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis model for reflux-generated esophageal damage were used to investigate the effects of the DNA-damaging agent cumene-hydroperoxide (cum-OOH) and a chemopreventive cranberry proanthocyanidin (C-PAC) extract, respectively, on levels of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA).RESULTS: We found significantly higher levels of glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (GSTT2) mRNA in squamous mucosa from African American compared with European American individuals and associated these with variants within the GSTT2 locus in African American individuals. We confirmed that 2 previously identified genomic variants at the GSTT2 locus, a 37-kb deletion and a 17-bp promoter duplication, reduce expression of GSTT2 in tissues from European American individuals. The nonduplicated 17-bp promoter was more common in tissue samples from populations of African descendant. GSTT2 protected Het-1A esophageal squamous cells from cum-OOH-induced DNA damage. Addition of C-PAC increased GSTT2 expression in Het-1A cells incubated with cum-OOH and in rats with reflux-induced esophageal damage. C-PAC also reduced levels of DNA damage in reflux-exposed rat esophagi, as observed by reduced levels of phospho-H2A histone family member X.CONCLUSIONS: We found GSTT2 to protect esophageal squamous cells against DNA damage from genotoxic stress and that GSTT2 expression can be induced by C-PAC. Increased levels of GSTT2 in esophageal tissues of African American individuals might protect them from GERD-induced damage and contribute to the low incidence of EAC in this population.

Cranberries - Potential Benefits in Patients with Chronic Kidney disease

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
de Almeida Alvarenga L; Borges NA; Moreira LSG; Resende Teixeira KT; Carraro-Eduardo JC; Dai L; Stenvinkel P; Lindholm B; Mafra D.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 10(6):3103-3112
Abstract: 

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present many complications that potentially could be linked to increased cardiovascular mortality such as inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and gut dysbiosis. There is growing evidence suggesting that nutritional strategies may reduce some of these complications. Clinical studies suggest that supplementation of cranberries may have beneficial effects on human health such as prevention of urinary tract infections. More recently, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects as well as modulation of gut microbiota provided by cranberry phytochemicals have drawn more attention. A better understanding of possible effects and mechanisms of action of cranberry supplementation in humans could inform researchers about warranted future directions for clinical studies targeting these complications in CKD patients by applying nutritional strategies involving cranberry supplementation.

Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) Peel Polyphenol-Rich Extract Attenuates Rat Liver Mitochondria Impairments in Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Vivo and After Oxidative Treatment in Vitro

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Zavodnikab I, Bukobc V, Lukivskayab O, Lapshinaa E, Ilyicha T, Belonovskayab E, Kirkob S, Narutab E, Kuzmitskayab I, Budrynd G, Zyzeleviczd D, Orachd J, Zakrzeskac A, Kiryukhinaa L.
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods. 57:83-94.
Abstract: 

Alcoholic steatohepatitis is an important medical problem but its effective therapies are still not available. Plant polyphenols are widely used for prevention of toxic liver damages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective mechanism(s) of a cranberry peel polyphenol-rich extract, focusing on the effects of the polyphenols on the mitochondrial function.The main components of cranberry peel phenolic compounds were anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols, phenolic acids, as was detected using UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The treatment of rats receiving ethanol (4 g/kg bw, 8 weeks) with cranberry polyphenols (daily, 4 mg/kg bw) partially prevented alcoholic liver damage, ameliorating steatosis and inflammatory signs in the liver, decreasing serum and liver triglyceride contents, ALT and AST activities, as well as diminishing TNFα and TGFβ levels in serum. The polyphenols inhibited Ca2+ - induced mitochondrial permeability transition, free radical generation in mitochondria during intoxication. The polyphenols (25 µg/ml) prevented mitochondrial oxidative impairments in vitro. In conclusion, the cranberry peel polyphenols with antioxidant properties exerted a hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the model of alcoholic steatohepatitis via prevention of liver mitochondria dysfunction.

Cranberry Attenuates Progression of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Shimizu K; Ono M; Imoto A; Nagayama H; Tetsumura N; Terada T; Tomita K; Nishinaka T.
Journal: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 42(8):1295-1302
Abstract: 

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.

Cranberry Extract with Enhanced Bactericidal Activities Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli within one Minute of Treatment

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Kim SA, Kim HW, Rhee MS
Journal: 
LWT 113:108318, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108318
Abstract: 

Cranberry has been widely utilized as a popular botanical dietary supplement to prevent urinary tract infection. The study aims to evaluate the enhanced bactericidal activities of cranberry against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) by adding a small quantity of naturally derived antimicrobials. The antibacterial effect was examined with cranberry extract alone (15 and 20%), three kinds of medium-chain fatty acids alone (caprylic, capric, and lauric acid; 0.05–1.0 mM), essential oils alone (carvacrol and thymol; 0.5–1.0 mM), and cranberry extract containing medium-chain fatty acids or essential oils at 37 °C for 1 min. The survivors were remarkably reduced with cranberry extract containing any of the antimicrobials. For example, cranberry extract (15 and 20%) with 1.0 mM of each caprylic acid, lauric acid, and carvacrol resulted in the complete eradication of UPEC (7.55 log reduction). Flow cytometry analysis of UPEC cells exposed to combined treatment showed clear membrane disruption and cell death (>95% of damage). Adding antimicrobials to cranberry extract did not affect (P > 0.05) the characteristics of the cranberry extract (Color, °Brix, pH). The present method may be more acceptable to consumers, who tend to avoid products containing synthetic chemicals and prefer the use of natural agents.

Cranberry Polyphenols: Natural Weapons Against Dental Caries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Dentistry Journal. 7(1)
Abstract: 

Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such as bacterial acidogenicity, aciduricity, glucan synthesis, and hydrophobicity. Cranberry phenols have the ability to disrupt these cariogenic virulence properties without being bactericidal, a key quality essential for retaining the benefits of the symbiotic resident oral microbiome and preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. This review discusses the cariostatic mechanisms of specific cranberry phytochemicals and their potential use as therapeutic agents against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention and control of dental caries.

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