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Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate Microbial Ecological Effects of CPP-ACP and Cranberry on Dental Plaque.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Leishman SJ; Bandara HMHN; Healey DL; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Jdr Clinical & Translational Research. 10.1177/2380084419859871 [doi]
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to dental caries prevention play a key role in attaining long-term control over the disease and maintaining a symbiotic oral microbiome.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the microbial ecological effects of 2 interventional dentifrices: a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) dentifrice and the same dentifrice supplemented with a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract.METHODS: The interventional toothpastes were compared with each other and with an active control fluoride dentifrice in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to determine changes in the bacterial loads of 14 key bacterial species (8 caries associated and 6 health associated) in the dental plaque of trial participants after they used the dentifrices for 5 to 6 wk.RESULTS: From the baseline to the recall visit, significant differences were observed between the treatment groups in the bacterial loads of 2 caries-associated bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans [P < 0.001] and Veillonella parvula [P < 0.001]) and 3 health-associated bacterial species (Corynebacterium durum [P = 0.008], Neisseria flavescens [P = 0.005], and Streptococcus sanguinis [P < 0.001]). Compared to the fluoride control dentifrice, the CPP-ACP dentifrice demonstrated significant differences for S. mutans (P = 0.032), C. durum (P = 0.007), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001), while combination CPP-ACP-cranberry dentifrice showed significant differences for S. mutans (P < 0.001), V. parvula (P < 0.001), N. flavescens (P = 0.003), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in the bacterial load comparisons between the CPP-ACP and combination dentifrices for any of the targeted bacterial species (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results indicate that dentifrices containing CPP-ACP and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts can influence a species-level shift in the ecology of the oral microbiome, resulting in a microbial community less associated with dental caries (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ANZCTR 12618000095268).KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: The results of this randomized controlled trial indicate that dentifrices containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts were able to beneficially modulate the microbial ecology of dental plaque in a group of high caries-risk patients. This could contribute toward lowering the risk of developing new caries lesions, an important goal sought by patients, clinicians, and policy makers.

Smart Wound Dressing Based on Kappa -Carrageenan/Locust Bean Gum/Cranberry Extract for Monitoring Bacterial Infections.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Zepon, K. M. Martins, M. M. Marques, M. S. Heckler, J. M. Morisso, F. D. P. Moreira, M. G. Ziulkoski, A. L. Kanis, L. A.
Journal: 
Carbohydrate Polymers. 206:362-370.
Abstract: 

A smart wound dressing based on carrageenan ( kappa C), locust bean gum (LBG), and cranberry extract (CB) for monitoring bacterial wound infections was developed and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, and SEM. The mechanical, swelling, cytotoxic and pH sensor properties were also investigated. UV-vis spectra demonstrated that the obtained kappa C:LBG:CB hydrogel film exhibited a visible change of colors as it was immersed in PBS solution pH 5.0, 7.3 and 9.0. The spectra of FT-IR suggested that chemical interactions had occurred between kappa C and CB extract. The obtained kappa C:LBG:CB hydrogel film exhibited adequate mechanical properties and a swelling behavior dependent on pH. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that kappa C:LBG:CB hydrogel film had dose-dependent cytotoxicity against NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. The in vitro studies using Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrated that the color changes of the kappa C:LBG:CB hydrogel film could be observed by naked eyes, confirming the potential use of the obtained hydrogel film as a visual system for monitoring bacterial wound infections.

Structural Characterization of Cranberry Arabinoxyloglucan Oligosaccharides.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Auker KM; Coleman CM; Wang M; Avula B; Bonnet SL; Kimble LL; Mathison BD; Chew BP; Ferreira D.
Journal: 
Journal of Natural Products. 82(3):606-620
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) products are widely available in North American food, juice, and dietary supplement markets. The use of cranberry is popular for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other reported health benefits. Preliminary findings by our research group indicate that arabinoxyloglucan oligosaccharides are present in cranberry products and may contribute to the antiadhesion properties of urine produced after cranberry consumption, but relatively little is known regarding the oligosaccharide components of cranberry. This report describes the isolation from two cranberry sources and the complete structure elucidation of two arabinoxyloglucan oligosaccharides through the use of carbohydrate-specific NMR spectroscopic and chemical derivatization methods. These compounds were identified as the heptasaccharide beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-[alpha-d-xylopyranosyl-(1->6)]-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-[alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-d-xylopyranosyl-(1->6)]-beta-d-glucopyranose (1) and the octasaccharide beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-[alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-d-xylopyranosyl-(1->6)]-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-[alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1->2)-alpha-d-xylopyranosyl-(1->6)]-beta-d-glucopyranose (2). Selected fractions and the isolated compounds were subjected to antimicrobial, cell viability, and E. coli antiadhesion assays. Results indicated that enriched fractions and purified compounds lacked antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects, supporting the potential use of such compounds for disease prevention without the risk for resistance development. Preliminary antiadhesion results indicated that mixtures of oligosaccharides exhibited greater antiadhesion properties than purified fractions or pure compounds. The potential use of cranberry oligosaccharides for the prevention of UTIs warrants continued investigations of this complex compound series.

Synergistic Cranberry Juice Combinations with Natural-Borne Antimicrobials for the Eradication of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Biofilm Within a Short Time.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Kim, H. W. Chung, D. H. Kim, S. A. Rhee, M. S.
Journal: 
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 68(4):321-328.
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTI), one of the most common diseases in humans, are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cranberry juice (CB) is a widely known prophylaxis for UTI, but the treatment of CB alone could not effectively eradicate preformed UPEC biofilms. The aim of this study was to develop enforced CB composites within a short time by adding a small quantity of natural borne antimicrobials. UPEC biofilms (initial: 6.0 log CFU per cm2), formed on silicone coupons in artificial urine medium, were exposed to CB (4-8%), caprylic acid (CAR; 0.025-0.05%) and thymol (TM; 0.025-0.05%) at 37 degrees C for 1 min. Individual treatment of each compound did not show the significant antibacterial effect on UPEC biofilms (P>0.05). Otherwise, the survivor counts of biofilms were synergistically reduced with CB containing any of the antimicrobials. For example combined treatment with CB (8%)+CAR (0.05%)+TM (0.05%) resulted in a 6 log reduction in UPEC populations in the biofilm (no detectable bacteria remained) with 4.6 log of synergistic bactericidal effect. The confocal laser scanning microscope images indicated that any composites including TM might result in biofilm detachment from the surface. The present method is cost-effective and more acceptable to consumers as it is based on the synergistic interaction of natural borne antimicrobials. The results of this study could be widely applicable in the functional food, medical and healthcare field.

Synergistic Effect of Cranberry Extract and Losartan Against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Hepatorenal Damage Associated Cardiomyopathy in Rats.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Galal SM; Hasan HF; Abdel-Rafei MK; El Kiki SM.
Journal: 
Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry. 125(4):357-366
Abstract: 

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) and/or losartan (LOS) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal damage associated cardiomyopathy in rats. To induce hepatorenal and cardiotoxicity, animals were received (AlCl3; 70 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks day after day and treated with CRAN (100 mg/kg b.wt.) orally daily for 4 weeks started after 4 weeks from AlCl3 injection accompanied with an administration of LOS (5 mg/kg i.p.) three times weekly for 4 weeks. Our data revealed that, compared to AlCl3, administration of CRAN extract and LOS produced a significant improvement which was evidenced by a significant amelioration in myocardial and vascular indices, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile and oxidative stress indices. Furthermore, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination reinforced the previous results. It could be concluded that combination of CRAN extract and LOS hindered AlCl3 induced hepatorenal damage complicated cardiomyopathy in rats.

The Effects of Cranberry on Cardiovascular Metabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Pourmasoumi M; Hadi A; Najafgholizadeh A; Joukar F; Mansour-Ghanaei F.
Journal: 
Clinical Nutrition 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.04.003 [doi]
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impetus for the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of cranberry supplementation on cardiovascular disease metabolic risk factors in adult populations.METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar up to June 2018, to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of cranberry supplementation on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors.RESULTS: The results of the pooled effect size indicated that cranberry administration significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and body mass index. No statistically significant change was observed in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and intercellular adhesion molecule. Stratified analysis showed that SBP reduction was more pronounced in studies with >=50 mean age participants. Also, subgroup analysis suggested a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein concentrations in subgroups with subjects <50 mean age, and triacylglycerol levels in subsets with cranberry administered in juice form.CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests cranberry supplementation may be effective in managing systolic blood pressure, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein in younger adults. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm these results.

Transcriptional Profiling of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Enteritidis Exposed to Ethanolic Extract of Organic Cranberry Pomace.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Das Q; Lepp D; Yin X; Ross K; McCallum JL; Warriner K; Marcone MF; Diarra MS.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE. 14(7):e0219163
Abstract: 

Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars continue to be an important food safety issue worldwide. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) fruits possess antimicrobial properties due to their various acids and phenolic compounds; however, the underlying mechanism of actions is poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of cranberry extracts on the growth rate of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Heidelberg and on the transcriptomic profile of Salmonella Enteritidis to gain insight into phenotypic and transcriptional changes induced by cranberry extracts on this pathogen. An ethanolic extract from cranberry pomaces (KCOH) and two of its sub-fractions, anthocyanins (CRFa20) and non-anthocyanin polyphenols (CRFp85), were used. The minimum inhibitory (MICs) and bactericidal (MBCs) concentrations of these fractions against tested pathogens were obtained using the broth micro-dilution method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute's guidelines. Transcriptional profiles of S. Enteritidis grown in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with or without 2 or 4 mg/ml of KCOH were compared by RNASeq to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. The MIC and MBC values of KCOH were 8 and 16 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested S. enterica isolates. The MIC value was 4 mg/mL for both CRFa20 and CRFp85 sub-fractions, and a reduced MBC value was obtained for CRFp85 (4 mg/ml). Treatment of S. Enteritidis with KCOH revealed a concentration-dependent transcriptional signature. Compared to the control, 2 mg/ml of KCOH exposure resulted in 89 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 53 and 36 were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. The upregulated genes included those involved in citrate metabolism, enterobactin synthesis and transport, and virulence. Exposure to 4 mg/ml KCOH led to the modulated expression of 376 genes, of which 233 were downregulated and 143 upregulated, which is 4.2 times more DEGs than from exposure to 2 mg/ml KCOH. The downregulated genes were related to flagellar motility, Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 (SPI-1), cell wall/membrane biogenesis, and transcription. Moreover, genes involved in energy production and conversion, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and coenzyme transport and metabolism were upregulated during exposure to 4 mg/ml KCOH. Overall, 57 genes were differentially expressed (48 downregulated and 9 upregulated) in response to both concentrations. Both concentrations of KCOH downregulated expression of hilA, which is a major SPI-1 transcriptional regulator. This study provides information on the response of Salmonella exposed to cranberry extracts, which could be used in the control of this important foodborne pathogen.

Update on Associated Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Khan A; Jhaveri R; Seed PC; Arshad M.
Journal: 
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Societ. 8(2):152-159
Abstract: 

Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) continues to challenge pediatric care providers. The diagnosis of an rUTI can be difficult, especially in young febrile children. Antibiotic resistance rates continue to rise, which limits oral treatment options. Prophylactic antibiotics are used commonly to manage rUTI, but their use increases the risk of rUTI with antibiotic-resistant strains without significantly reducing renal scarring. Alternative therapies for rUTI include probiotics and anthocyanidins (eg, cranberry extract) to reduce gut colonization by uropathogens and prevent bacterial adhesion to uroepithelia, but efficacy data for these treatments are sparse. The future of rUTI care rests in addressing the following contemporary issues: best diagnostic practices, risk factors associated with rUTI, and the prevention of recurrent infection. In this review, we summarize the state of the art for each of these issues and highlight future studies that will aim to take an alternative approach to managing rUTI.

Impact of Cranberries on Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health: Proceedings of the Cranberry Health Research Conference 2015

Posted: 
August 3, 2016
Authors: 
Blumberg JB, Basu A, Krueger CG, Lila MA, Neto CC, Novotny JA, Reed JD, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Toner CD
Journal: 
Advances in Nutrition. 2016;7:759S-770S. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012583
Abstract: 

Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit’s efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins interfere with colonization of the gut by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction caused by dietary insults in vivo. Furthermore, new studies indicate synergy between these proanthocyanidins, other cranberry components such as isoprenoids and xyloglucans, and gut microbiota. Together, cranberry constituents and their bioactive catabolites have been found to contribute to mechanisms affecting bacterial adhesion, coaggregation, and biofilm formation that may underlie potential clinical benefits on gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as on systemic anti-inflammatory actions mediated via the gut microbiome. A limited but growing body of evidence from randomized clinical trials reveals favorable effects of cranberry consumption on measures of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, endothelial function, glucoregulation, and a variety of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. These results warrant further research, particularly studies dedicated to the elucidation of dose-response relations, pharmacokinetic/metabolomics profiles, and relevant biomarkers of action with the use of fully characterized cranberry products. Freeze-dried whole cranberry powder and a matched placebo were recently made available to investigators to facilitate such work, including interlaboratory comparability.

Link to full text article: http://advances.nutrition.org/content/7/4/759S.full

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