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Dietary Berries, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Human Feeding Trials.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Calvano, A. Izuora, K. Oh, E. C. Ebersole, J. L. Lyons, T. J. Basu, A.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6227-6243
Abstract: 

Dietary berries are a rich source of several nutrients and phytochemicals and in recent years, accumulating evidence suggests they can reduce risks of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the role of dietary berries (taken as fresh, frozen, or other processed forms) on insulin resistance and biomarkers of T2D in human feeding studies. Reported feeding trials involve different berries taken in different forms, and consequently differences in nutritional or polyphenol composition must be considered in their interpretation. Commonly consumed berries, especially cranberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance, and in adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In non-acute long-term studies, these berries either alone, or in combination with other functional foods or dietary interventions, can improve glycemic and lipid profiles, blood pressure and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. Studies specifically in people with T2D are few, and more knowledge is needed. Nevertheless, existing evidence, although sparse, suggests that berries have an emerging role in dietary strategies for the prevention of diabetes and its complications in adults. Despite the beneficial effects of berries on diabetes prevention and management, they must be consumed as part of a healthy and balanced diet.

Inhibitory Effects of Cranberry Polyphenol and Volatile Extracts on Nitric Oxide Production in LPS Activated RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Moore, K. Howard, L. Brownmiller, C. Gu INah Lee SunOk Mauromoustakos, A.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(11):7091-7102
Abstract: 

Cranberry volatiles have received little attention for health-promoting properties. In this study, we compared the inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and volatile standards on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Polyphenols were analyzed by HPLC/HPLC-MS and volatiles were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The inhibition of NO production of the fresh cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and alpha -terpineol, linalool, linalool oxide, and eucalyptol standards at 2, 4, and 8-fold dilutions of their original concentrations in fresh cranberries was evaluated by treating these extracts/standards for 1 h before or after LPS application for 24 h. After inducing inflammation with LPS, the polyphenol treatments (317.8 and 635.7 micro g g-1) and 1.8 micro g g-1 volatile treatment lowered NO levels 46-62% compared to the positive control (P<0.05). When the cells were treated with polyphenol and volatile extracts before inducing inflammation, the 635.7 micro g g-1 and 317.8 micro g g-1 polyphenol treatments and 1.8 micro g g-1 and 0.9 micro g g-1 volatile treatments lowered NO levels (13-52%) compared to the positive control (P<0.05). Polyphenol and volatile extracts from cranberry were effective in reducing NO production whether applied before or after the application of LPS. alpha -Terpineol at a concentration found in fresh cranberries (1.16 micro g mL-1) was also found to be effective in reducing NO production whether cells were treated before or after application of LPS. Future studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms by which volatile compounds, especially alpha -terpineol act to mitigate inflammation and to determine the bioavailability of terpenes.

Potential of Cranberry for Suppressing Helicobacter Pylori, A Risk Factor for Gastric Cancer

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Howell, Amy B.
Journal: 
Journal of Berry Research, DOI: 10.3233/JBR-180375
Abstract: 

This review summarizes the mechanistic and clinical research on the use of cranberry as an alternative management strategy for H. pylori bacteria in populations at high risk for infection-induced peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The multiple mechanisms of action of cranberry polyphenols and how they may be applied in relation to what is known about the pathogenicity of H. pylori offers opportunity for utilizing this fruit to potentially help lower the incidence of ulcers and concomitant gastric cancer.

Probiotic and Cranberry Supplementation for Preventing Recurrent Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Premenopausal Women: A Controlled Pilot Study.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Parshottam Koradia; Shital Kapadia; Yamini Trivedi; Gajendrasinh Chanchu; Harper, A.
Journal: 
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy; 2019. 17(9):733-740.
Abstract: 

Objectives: To assess efficacy and safety of Bio-Kult Pro-Cyan (BKPro-Cyan), a product containing two strains of Lactobacilli plus cranberry extract, for preventing recurrent UTIs in pre-menopausal adult women. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Subjects received BKPro-Cyan or placebo twice-daily for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects with recurrent UTI at the end of the study. Results: 115 subjects were screened; 90 were enrolled; 81 completed the study. After 26 weeks, a significantly lower number of women experienced recurrent UTIs with BKPro-Cyan compared to placebo (9.1 vs 33.3%; P=0.0053). BKPro-Cyan produced statistically significant improvements compared to placebo for multiple secondary endpoints, including: greater number of subjects who experienced no UTIs (90 vs 67%; P<0.05); longer time to first UTI (174 vs 90 days; P=0.001); shorter duration of active UTI (5 vs 12 days; P=0.009); Fewer subjects requiring antibiotics (3 vs 11; P<0.05); and shorter median duration of antibiotic treatment (4 vs 7 days; P=0.09). Conclusions: BKPro-Cyan was safe and effective for preventing recurrent UTI in pre-menopausal adult women. These findings support the need for further well-designed trials to clarify the benefits that may be achieved.

Role of Berry Bioactive Compounds on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Basu, A.
Journal: 
Nutrients; 2019. 11(9):1983
Abstract: 

Blood lipids are an important biomarker of cardiovascular health and disease. Among the lipid biomarkers that have been widely used to monitor and predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD), elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol (C), as well as elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, deserve special attention in their predictive abilities, and thus have been the targets of several therapeutic and dietary approaches to improving lipid profiles. Among natural foods and nutraceuticals, dietary berries are a rich source of nutrients, fiber, and various types of phytochemicals. Berries as whole fruits, juices, and purified extracts have been shown to lower total and LDL-C, and increase HDL-C in clinical studies in participants with elevated blood lipids, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This short review aimed to further discuss the mechanisms and magnitude of the lipid-lowering effects of dietary berries, with emphasis on reported clinical studies. Based on the emerging evidence, colorful berry fruits may thus be included in a healthy diet for the prevention and management of CVD.

The Effect of Cranberry Fruit Extract on Alpha -Synuclein Protein Expression using Immunostaining Techniques

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Kumar, J. Sarvesh; Priya, V. Vishnu; Gayathri, R.
Journal: 
Drug Invention Today . Jun2019, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p1506-1508
Abstract: 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the neuroprotective effect of cranberry fruit extract by reducing the release of this biomarker by immunostaining techniques. Objective: The present study is to find out the alpha-lipoic acid cranberry fruit extract on alpha-synuclein protein expression using immunostaining techniques. Materials and Methods: The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of cranberry fruit extract and were incubated with primary antibody alpha-synuclein and the antigen-antibody activity was visualized under a light microscope, and the results were quantified using image analysis software. Results: The study infers that when cranberry extract is added to the neurotoxic cell lines, the antigen-antibody reaction is interfered and as the concentration of cranberry fruit extract increases the corresponding decrease in the expression of the alpha-synuclein protein can be seen. Conclusion: Cranberry fruit extract proves to effectively reduce the expression of alpha-synuclein protein in neurotoxic cell lines so further research must be conducted in this field to discover the useful effects of cranberry so that it can be used as a neuroprotective agent in medicines to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study to Assess Bacterial Anti-Adhesive Activity in Human Urine Following Consumption of a Cranberry Supplement

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Haiyan Liu, Amy B. Howell, Derek J. Zhang and Christina Khoo
Journal: 
Food Funct., 2019, 10, 7645-7652, DOI: 10.1039/C9FO01198F
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the common bacterial infections treated with antibiotics.The North American cranberry is recommended for prophylaxis in women with recurrent UTIs as a nutritional alternative. The ability of cranberry components and their metabolites to inhibit adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important mechanism by which cranberry mitigates UTIs. The objective of this study was to evaluate urinary anti-adhesion activity against type 1 and P-type uropathogenic E. coli after consumption of cranberry +health™ cranberry supplement (cranberry chew). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design pilot trial (n = 20), subjects consumed two cranberry or placebo chews, one in the morning and one in the evening. Clean-catch urine samples collected at the baseline and post-intervention (0–3, 3–6, 6–9, 9–12, 12–24, 24–30, 30–36 h) were tested for anti-adhesion effects with a mannose-resistant human red blood cell hemagglutination assay specific for P-type E. coli, or a T24 cell line model for type 1 E. coli. Urinary anti-adhesion activity against P-type E. coli after consumption of the cranberry chew was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that observed with placebo chew at all time points except 24–36 h. Ex vivo anti-adhesion effects on type 1 E. coli were greater (p < 0.05) after cranberry chew consumption than placebo chew at 3–6 and 6–9 h urine collections. In conclusion, consumption of cranberry +health™ cranberry supplement exhibited greater ex vivo urinary anti-adhesion activity compared to placebo, suggesting that it may have the potential to help promote urinary tract health.

Clinical-Diagnostic Criteria and Peculiarities of Treatment of Urocystitis in Cats

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Shulzhenko, N. M. Chernenko, O. M. Holubyev, O. V. Bordunova, O. G. Suslova, N. I.
Journal: 
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems; 2019. 10(1):26-31.
Abstract: 

The results of a study of cats with signs of urocystitis are presented. The general principles of diagnostics based on clinical, laboratory and additional research methods are established. Clinically acute urocystitis was manifested by disorders of urination - pollakiuria, dysuria, stranguria. Some of the animals showed an increase in body temperature, pain in the bladder and tightness of the walls of the abdominal cavity. According to the results of urine study, it was observed that 43.7% of the cats with urocystitis showed an increase in relative density of the urine, a change in urine pH towards higher alkaline levels, urine residue - erythrocytes, leukocytes and microorganisms were indicated. Impurities of salt and sand were found in 58.4% of the cats. In 31.4% of the cats, urocystitis was a complication of urolithiasis. Early diagnosis, especially differential diagnosis of acute and chronic, secondary urocystitis presents difficulties. Therefore, in cases of suspected inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract, a complex examination using ultrasound of the kidneys, bladder, prostate gland (in males) and the uterus (in females) is recommended. With therapeutic purpose, sick cats (two groups of 8 animals/group) were administered: anti-microbial agent (5% solution of Enrofloxacin), spasmolytic medicinal agent - RiabalReg.. Animals of the second group were additionally administered the drug Cystocure (Candioli Farmaceutici). According to the instructions, the plant basis of the powder Cystocure is presented by extracts of cranberries and orange peels. These substances provide the main properties of the drug - help in resisting the bacterial colonization of the lower urinary tract and change in urine pH to the acid side. The applied therapy positively influenced the clinical condition of the cats. Their general health was improved, painful sensations during the act of urination disappeared, the quantity and frequency of diuresis normalized. On the seventh day of treatment, according to the results of the study, the urine became transparent, no microorganisms were detected. In cats of the second group, which additionally used the drug Cystocure, the amount of salts and sand decreased significantly, the pH of the urine did not exceed the recommended value of 6.4, in contrast to animals of the first group.

Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extracts Protect Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Nabila Ibrahim El Desouki, Mohamed L. Salem, Mona M. Elwan, Maysa M. Abosenna.
Journal: 
Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Zoo.). 2019; 15(1): 77-84doi: 10.5455/egysebz.20190417104454
Abstract: 

The present study is designed to investigate the role of certain natural cranberry and rosemary extracts to improve the histological changes in the cardiac muscle toxicity of adult male albino rats weighing 110±5g (aged 3-4 weeks) induced by doxorubicin (DOX). To assessment of cardiotoxicity, the cardiac enzyme creatine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin I protein were measured. The animals were divided into 7 equal groups (10 rats /each); Gp. I: normal control rats group injected with saline solution 0.9 % intraperitoneally (i.p.) for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp. II: cranberry rats group administrated orally with 150 mg/kg/bw for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp III rosemary rats group administrated orally with 2g/kg/bw for three times per a week for three weeks, Gp IV: DOX rats group injected i.p. with 2.5mg/kg three times / week for two weeks, Gps: V, VI & VII: DOX rat groups administrated orally with cranberry or rosemary or both together in the same previous doses and duration. In the present research, the measurement of CK - MB enzyme and troponin I protein are recorded high values in the blood sera in DOX -rats group (Gp IV) in comparison with other control groups (Gps. I, II& III) and treated groups (Gps; V, VI & VII) in which the levels of CK-MP and troponin I are recorded approximately normal values as in control group (Gp. I). Histological study of the cardiac muscle of normal control rats group (Gp.I) revealed normal branched cardiomyocytes with normal striations and normal oval centrally located nuclei. Similar observations are seen in the cranberry and rosemary rat groups (Gps. II& III). In DOX rats group (Gp IV), the histological observations of the cardiac muscle demonstrated many alternations such as disarrangement, degeneration and vacuolation of the cardiomyocytes. The appearance of infiltration of inflammatory cells and necrotic areas in most cardiomyocytes as well as dilation and congestion of blood vessels in the dilated endomysia were also observed. The administration of either cranberry alone or cranberry with rosemary together to DOX rats group revealed an obvious improvement and harmony restoration of the histological structure with normal appearance of the cardiomyocytes with normal oval nuclei, and complete disappearance of dilated and congested blood vessels, more than those given rosemary only. In brief, DOX rats group given either cranberry alone or cranberry with rosemary together recorded marked recovery of the normal values of CK-MB and troponin I as well as the restoration of the architecture of the cardiac muscle to approximately normal form than those given rosemary only.

Dietary Cranberry Suppressed Colonic Inflammation and Alleviated Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Treated Mice.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Cai XiaoKun; Han YanHui; Gu Min; Song MingYue; Wu Xian; Li ZhengZe; Li Fang; Goulette, T.; Xiao Hang
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6331-6341
Abstract: 

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha ) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p<0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in alpha -diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.

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