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Cranberry anti-cancer compounds and their uptake and metabolism: an updated review

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Authors
Prasain, J. K.; Grubbs, C.; Barnes, S..
Journal
Journal of Berry Research; 2020. 10(1):1-10.
Abstract

Consumption of cranberry fruits or juice rich in polyphenols is associated with a wide range of potential health benefits. We and others have previously showed that cranberry juice concentrate and its phytochemicals, flavonols, anthocyanins and A-type proanthocyandins, may have potential to be chemopreventive agents. Although a number of cranberry constituents have been implicated in cancer prevention, our understanding about which metabolites are bio-available to reach target sites and thereby elicit cancer chemopreventive properties is still lacking. However, poor plasma bioavailability of cranberry constituents may be overcome by their potential interactions with gut microbiota by providing cancer prevention through induction of compositional and functional modifications of gut microbiota. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating metabolic and gut microbiome changes associated with cranberry consumption would provide useful information about the cancer patient's response to dietary intervention with cranberry constituents

Cranberry extract initiates intrinsic apoptosis in HL-60 cells by increasing BAD activity through inhibition of AKT phosphorylation

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Authors
Mansouri RA; Percival SS.
Journal
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 20(1):71,
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cranberry has been studied as a potential anticancer agent as it is capable of inducing apoptosis within cancer cells. The aim of this study was to better define the mechanism by which cranberry triggers apoptosis in HL-60 cells. METHODS: The study was carried on cranberry extracts (CB). Anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and pro-apoptotic BCL-2-associated death promoter death (BAD) proteins in cell lysates were detected through Western blotting techniques. Equivalent protein loading was confirmed through anti-alpha-tubulin antibody. RESULTS: The results showed that treatment of HL-60 cells with CB causes a significant increase in the levels of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7 and increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, leading to the release of cytochrome C and Smac. These apoptotic events were associated with a significant decrease in protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation, which caused significant increase in BAD de-phosphorylation and promoted a sequence of events that led to intrinsic apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The study findings have described a molecular framework for CB-initiated apoptosis in HL-60 cells and suggested a direction for future in vivo studies investigating the anticancer effect of cranberry

Cranberry extract-based formulations for preventing bacterial biofilms

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Authors
Greene AC; Acharya AP; Lee SB; Gottardi R; Zaleski E; Little SR.
Journal
Drug Delivery & Translational Research. 2020 Aug 11.
Abstract

Generating formulations for the delivery of a mixture of natural compounds extracted from natural sources is a challenge because of unknown active and inactive ingredients and possible interactions between them. As one example, natural cranberry extracts have been proposed for the prevention of biofilm formation on dental pellicle or teeth. However, such extracts may contain phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides along with other constituents like coumaroyl iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, alpha-linolenic acid, n-6 (or n-3) fatty acids, and crude fiber. Due to the presence of a variety of compounds, determining which molecules (and how many molecules) are essential for preventing biofilm growth is nontrivial to ascertain. Therefore, a formulation that could contain natural, unrefined, cranberry extract (with all its constituent compounds) at high loading would be ideal. Accordingly, we have generated several candidate formulations including poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based microencapsulation of cranberry extract (CE15) as well as formulations including stearic acid along with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or Ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) complexed with cranberry extracts (CE15). We found that stearic acid in combination with PVP or LAE as excipients led to higher loading of the active and inactive compounds in CE15 as compared with a PLGA microencapsulation and also sustained release of CE15 in a tunable manner. Using this method, we have been able to generate two successful formulations (one preventative based, one treatment based) that effectively inhibit biofilm growth when incubated with saliva. In addition to cranberry extract, this technique could also be a promising candidate for other natural extracts to form controlled release systems.

Cranberry polyphenolic extract exhibits an antiobesity effect on high-fat diet-fed mice through increased thermogenesis

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Authors
Zhou Fang; Guo JieLong; Han Xue; Gao YunXiao; Chen QiMin; Huang WeiDong; Zhan JiCheng; Huang DeJian; You YiLin
Journal
Journal of Nutrition; 2020. 150(8):2131-2138.
Abstract

Background: Although polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts reportedly have an antiobesity effect, the exact reason for this remains unclear. Objectives: In light of the reported health benefits of the polyphenolic compounds in cranberry, we investigated the effects and mechanism of a cranberry polyphenolic extract (CPE) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Methods: The distributions of individual CPE compounds were characterized by HPLC fingerprinting. Male C57BL/6J mice (4 wk old) were fed for 16 wk normal diet (ND, 10% fat energy) or HFD (60% fat energy) with or without 0.75% CPE in drinking water (HFD + CPE). Body and adipose depot weights, indices of glucose metabolism, energy expenditure (EE), and expression of genes related to brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and inguinal/epididymal white adipose tissue (iWAT/eWAT) browning were measured. Results: After 16 wk, the body weight was 22.5% lower in the CPE-treated mice than in the HFD group but remained 17.9% higher than in the ND group. CPE treatment significantly increased EE compared with that of the ND and HFD groups. The elevated EE was linked with BAT thermogenesis, and iWAT/eWAT browning, shown by the induction of thermogenic genes, especially uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and browning-related genes, including Cd137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf9). The mRNA expression and abundance of uncoupling protein 1 in BAT of CPE-fed mice were 5.78 and 1.47 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.61 and 1.12 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Cd137 gene expression in iWAT and eWAT of CPE-fed mice were 2.35 and 3.13 times higher than in the HFD group, and 0.84 and 1.39 times higher than in the ND group, respectively. Conclusions: Dietary CPE reduced but did not normalize HFD-induced body weight gain in male C57BL/6J mice, possibly by affecting energy metabolism..

Cranberry polyphenols and prevention against urinary tract infections: relevant considerations

Posted
Authors
Gonzalez de Llano, D.; Moreno-Arribas, M. V.; Bartolome, B..
Journal
Molecules; 2020. 25(15).
Abstract

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a distinctive source of polyphenols as flavonoids and phenolic acids that has been described to display beneficial effects against urinary tract infections (UTIs), the second most common type of infections worldwide. UTIs can lead to significant morbidity, especially in healthy females due to high rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. Strategies and therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment against UTIs are continuously being sought after. Different to cranberry, which have been widely recommended in traditional medicine for UTIs prophylaxis, probiotics have emerged as a new alternative to the use of antibiotics against these infections and are the subject of new research in this area. Besides uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common bacteria causing uncomplicated UTIs, other etiological agents, such as Klebsiellapneumoniae or Gram-positive bacteria of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus genera, seem to be more widespread than previously appreciated. Considerable current effort is also devoted to the still-unraveled mechanisms that are behind the UTI-protective effects of cranberry, probiotics and their new combined formulations. All these current topics in the understanding of the protective effects of cranberry against UTIs are reviewed in this paper. Further progresses expected in the coming years in these fields are also discussed..

Cranberry powder attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

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Authors
An YeonJu; Lee JeongYoon; Kim YulHa; Jun WooJin; Lee YooHyun
Journal
Journal of Medicinal Food; 2020. 23(12):1296-1302
Abstract

Cranberry powder (CR) is reported to be effective against lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and recurrent urinary tract infections. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men older than 50 years is a common cause of LUTS. Here, we attempted to evaluate if CR is also effective for treating BPH using a BPH-induced rat model, which was orally administered CR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into the following six groups (n = 9): noncastration group; castration group; BPH group; BPH and cranberry for 8-week (CR8W) group; BPH and cranberry for 4-week (CR4W) group; and BPH and saw palmetto group (saw palmetto). Compared with the BPH group, the CR8W group showed a significant decrease in prostate weight (by 33%), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (by 18% in serum and 28% in prostate), 5-alpha reductase levels (18% reduction of type 1 and 35% of type 2), and histological changes. These results indicate that CR could attenuate BPH by inhibiting 5-alpha reductase and by reducing other biomarkers such as prostate weight and DHT levels. Thus, CR may be an effective candidate for the development of a functional food for BPH treatment.

Development of a cranberry standard for quantification of insoluble cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins

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Authors
Gullickson, E. R.; Krueger, C. G.; Birmingham, A.; Maranan, M.; Reed, J. D
Journal
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 2020. 68(10):2900-2905.
Abstract

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) can be partitioned into soluble PACs, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PACs, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PACs because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PACs are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a cranberry PAC (c-PAC) standard, reflective of the structural heterogeneity of PACs found in cranberry fruit, to quantify insoluble PACs by the butanol-hydrochloric acid (BuOH-HCl) method. For the first time, a c-PAC standard enabled conversion of BuOH-HCl absorbance values (550 nm) to a weight (milligram) basis, allowing for quantification of insoluble PACs in cranberries. The use of the c-PAC reference standard for sequential analysis of soluble PACs by the method of 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and insoluble PACs by the method of BuOH-HCl provides analytical tools for the standardization of cranberry-based ingredients

Effect of daily consumption of cranberry beverage on insulin sensitivity and modification of cardiovascular risk factors in adults with obesity: a pilot, randomised, placebo-controlled study

Posted
Authors
Hsia, D. S.; Zhang, D. J.; Beyl, R. S.; Greenway, F. L.; Khoo, C..
Journal
British Journal of Nutrition; 2020. 124(6):577-585
Abstract

Cranberries are high in polyphenols, and epidemiological studies have shown that a high-polyphenol diet may reduce risk factors for diabetes and CVD. The present study aimed to determine if short-term cranberry beverage consumption would improve insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-five individuals with obesity and with elevated fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed pilot trial. Participants consumed 450 ml of low-energy cranberry beverage or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Changes in insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors including vascular reactivity, blood pressure, RMR, glucose tolerance, lipid profiles and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. Change in insulin sensitivity via hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was not different between the two groups. Levels of 8-isoprostane (biomarker of lipid peroxidation) decreased in the cranberry group but increased in the placebo group (-2.18 v. +20.81 pg/ml; P = 0.02). When stratified by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, participants with high CRP levels (>4 mg/l) benefited more from cranberry consumption. In this group, significant differences in the mean change from baseline between the cranberry (n 10) and the placebo groups (n 7) in levels of TAG (-13.75 v. +10.32%; P = 0.04), nitrate (+3.26 v. -6.28 micro mol/l; P = 0.02) and 8-isoprostane (+0.32 v. +30.8 pg/ml; P = 0.05) were observed. These findings indicate that 8 weeks of daily cranberry beverage consumption may not impact insulin sensitivity but may be helpful in lowering TAG and changing certain oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with obesity and a proinflammatory state

Effects of chronic consumption of specific fruit (berries, citrus and cherries) on CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

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Authors
Wang Y; Gallegos JL; Haskell-Ramsay C; Lodge JK
Journal
European Journal of Nutrition. 2020 Jun 13
Abstract

PURPOSE: This review aims to compare the magnitude of the effects of chronic consumption of fruits; specifically berries, citrus and cherries on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and psycARTICLES were searched from inception until January 2020. Forty-five chronic (>= 1 week) randomised controlled trials assessing CVD risk factors including endothelial (dys)function, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids and inflammatory biomarkers were included. RESULTS: Investigated interventions reported improvements in endothelial function (n = 8), inflammatory biomarkers and lipid status (n = 14), and BP (n = 10). Berries including juice of barberry, cranberry, grape, pomegranate, powder of blueberry, grape, raspberry and freeze-dried strawberry significantly reduced SBP by 3.68 mmHg (95% CI - 6.79 to - 0.58; P = 0.02) and DBP by 1.52 mmHg (95% CI - 2.87 to - 0.18, P = 0.04). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to cranberry juice (SBP by 1.52 mmHg [95% CI - 2.97 to - 0.07; P = 0.05], DBP by 1.78 mmHg [95% CI - 3.43 to - 0.12, P = 0.04] and cherry juice (SBP by 3.11 mmHg [95% CI - 4.06 to - 2.15; P = 0.02]). Berries also significantly elevated sVCAM-1 levels by 14.57 ng/mL (85% CI 4.22 to 24.93; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that supplementing cranberry or cherry juice might contribute to an improvement in blood pressure. No other significant improvements were observed for other specified fruits. More research is warranted comparing different classes of fruit and exploring the importance of fruit processing on their cardiovascular-protective effects.

Efficacy of an orally administered combination of Lactobacillus paracasei LC11, cranberry and D-mannose for the prevention of uncomplicated, recurrent urinary tract infections in women

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Authors
Murina F; Vicariotto F; Lubrano C
Journal
Urologia (Treviso). 391560320957483, 2020 Sep 20.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Most women experience a urinary tract infection (UTI) at least once in their lifetime. The present study determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of Lactobacillus paracasei LC11, cranberry and D-mannose (Lactoflorene Cist R) in the prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in premenopausal women. METHODS: This single-centre study enrolled premenopausal women aged 18-50 years with an acute UTI and a history of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs. Patients were first treated with fosfomycin (3 g once a day for 2 days) to eliminate any underlying infection, followed by treatment with Lactoflorene Cist R once a day for 10 days/month for 90 days (Group 1), Lactoflorene Cist R once daily for 90 days (Group 2) or no treatment (Group 3; control). The main study endpoint was the rate of UTI recurrence during the study period. Any adverse events with treatment were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 55 women (mean age 39.3 years; range: 20-46) were enrolled in the study. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the control group experienced UTIs during the study period compared with the two treatment groups (52.9% vs 16.0% in Group 1 and 15.5% in group 2; p < 0.01). Similarly, a higher proportion of patients in Group 1 (65.8%) and Group 2 (68.7%) remained UTI-free during the study versus the control group. No adverse events were reported in the treated patients. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic treatment with Lactoflorene Cist R was effective and safe in the management of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in premenopausal women.