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Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

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Authors
Zhang L, Ma J, Pan K, Go VL, Chen J, You WC
Journal
Helicobacter 10(2):139-45
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study postulated that cranberry juice would be effective in the suppression of H. pylori in an endemically infected population at high risk for gastric cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Linqu County of Shandong Province, China, where 189 adults aged 48.9 +/- 11.2 years (mean +/- SD) with H. pylori infection were randomly divided into two groups: cranberry juice (n = 97) and placebo (n = 92). Participants were assigned to orally receive two 250-ml juice boxes of cranberry juice or matching placebo beverage daily for 90 days. The degree of H. pylori infection was determined using the 13C-urea breath test before randomization at 35 and 90 days of intervention to assess the efficacy of cranberry juice in alleviating infection.RESULTS: A total of 189 subjects with positive 13C-urea breath test results prior to randomization completed the study. At day 35 of intervention, 14 of the 97 (14.43%) from the the cranberry juice treatment group and 5 of the 92 (5.44%) of the placebo recipients had negative 13C-urea breath test results. After 90 days, the study concluded that 14 of the 97 subjects in the cranberry juice treatment group versus 5 of the 92 in the placebo group yielded negative test results. Eleven individuals from the cranberry juice treatment group and only two from the placebo group were negative at 35 and 90 days of experiment. These results are significant (p

Cranberry does not affect prothrombin time in male subjects on warfarin.

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Authors
Li Z, Seeram NP, Carpenter CL, Thames G, Minutti C, Bowerman S.
Journal
J Am Diet Assoc 106(12):2057-61
Abstract

There have been case reports suggesting that cranberry beverages may interact with warfarin. To date, no research study has been conducted to examine the potential interaction of cranberry and warfarin. The current study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study to investigate the effect of cranberry juice on prothrombin time as assessed by the international normalized ratio (INR). Seven subjects with atrial fibrillation on a stable dose of warfarin for 3 months were randomized to consume 250 mL of cranberry juice for 7 days, then placebo for 7 days, or vice versa. The washout period was 7 days. The prothrombin time/INR was measured at baseline, and on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 16, 18, 21, and 24. Data were analyzed by the Student t test for paired values. The baseline INR was 2.28+/-0.54 for the cranberry group and 2.13+/-0.50 for the placebo group. For all test points, the INR did not change significantly from baseline. At day 7 on cranberry juice, the INR was 2.23+/-0.53 for cranberry first group and 2.16+/-0.40 for placebo first group. The mean differences between the cranberry and placebo groups were not statistically significant. Our results suggest no significant interaction between the daily consumption of 250 mL cranberry juice and warfarin. When counseling patients on dietary changes necessary during warfarin treatment, it does not seem necessary to eliminate daily cranberry juice consumption at amounts of 250 mL, but the INR should be followed up closely.

Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam--probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4

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Authors
Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ
Journal
Clin Pharmacol Ther 81(6):833-9
Abstract

Case reports suggest that cranberry juice can increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. We investigated the effects of cranberry juice on R-S-warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam; probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Ten healthy volunteers took 200 ml cranberry juice or water t.i.d. for 10 days. On day 5, they ingested 10 mg racemic R-S-warfarin, 1 mg tizanidine, and 0.5 mg midazolam, with juice or water, followed by monitoring of drug concentrations and thromboplastin time. Cranberry juice did not increase the peak plasma concentration or area under concentration-time curve (AUC) of the probe drugs or their metabolites, but slightly decreased (7%; P=0.051) the AUC of S-warfarin. Cranberry juice did not change the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Daily ingestion of cranberry juice does not inhibit the activities of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, or CYP3A4. A pharmacokinetic mechanism for the cranberry juice-warfarin interaction seems unlikely.

Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects2

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Authors
Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, Day RO, Roufogalis BD, Liauw WS, Xu H, McLachlan AJ
Journal
Br J Pharmacol 154(8):1691-700
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients commonly take complementary medicines in conjunction with warfarin yet evidence supporting the safety or the risk of a herb-drug interaction is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of two commonly used herbal medicines, garlic and cranberry, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy male subjects.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: An open-label, three-treatment, randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken and involved 12 healthy male subjects of known CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype. A single dose of 25 mg warfarin was administered alone or after 2 weeks of pretreatment with either garlic or cranberry. Warfarin enantiomer concentrations, INR, platelet aggregation and clotting factor activity were measured to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and herbal medicines.

KEY RESULTS: Cranberry significantly increased the area under the INR-time curve by 30% when administered with warfarin compared with treatment with warfarin alone. Cranberry did not alter S- or R-warfarin pharmacokinetics or plasma protein binding. Co-administration of garlic did not significantly alter warfarin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Both herbal medicines showed some evidence of VKORC1 (not CYP2C9) genotype-dependent interactions with warfarin, which is worthy of further investigation.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cranberry alters the pharmacodynamics of warfarin with the potential to increase its effects significantly. Co-administration of warfarin and cranberry requires careful monitoring.

Anthocyanins are bioavailable in humans following an acute dose of cranberry juice

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Authors
Milbury PE, Vita JA, Blumberg JB
Journal
J Nutr 140(6):1099-1104
Abstract

Research suggests that anthocyanins from berry fruit may affect a variety of physiological responses, including endothelial function, but little information is available regarding the pharmacokinetics of these flavonoids in humans. To determine the pharmacokinetics of cranberry anthocyanins, a study was undertaken in 15 participants (age: 62 +/- 8 y) with coronary artery disease. Blood and urine samples were collected between baseline (0 h) and 4 h after consumption of 480 mL cranberry juice (54% juice; 835 mg total polyphenols; 94.47 mg anthocyanins). Marked inter-individual differences in plasma anthocyanin pharmacokinetics were observed with maximum anthocyanin concentrations detected between 1 and 3 h. Cranberry anthocyanins were bioavailable but with notable differences in the maximum concentration and area under the curve(0-4h) between individual participants. The pattern of anthocyanin glucosides observed in plasma and urine generally reflected the relative concentration determined in the juice. Plasma concentrations of the individual anthocyanins ranged between 0.56 and 4.64 nmol/L. Total recovery of urinary anthocyanin was 0.79 +/- 0.90% of the dose delivered. These data are in agreement with the pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins from other foods suggesting that cranberry anthocyanins are poorly absorbed and rapidly removed from plasma. Observed concentrations of plasma anthocyanins appear insufficient to alter radical load or redox potential but may be adequate to affect signal transduction and/or gene expression.

Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin

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Authors
Pham DQ, Pham AQ
Journal
Am J Health Syst Pharm 64(5):490-4
Abstract

PURPOSE: The interaction potential between warfarin and cranberry juice is discussed.

SUMMARY: Reports from the United Kingdom have raised concern over the interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral medication for anticoagulation therapy. Cranberry juice is a flavonoid, which has been shown to induce, inhibit, or act as a substrate for the biosynthesis of several cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzymes. Specifically, cranberry juice may inhibit the activity of CYP2C9, the primary isoenzyme involved in the metabolism of S-warfarin. A search of the medical literature identified three peer-reviewed case reports and two peer-reviewed, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials using metabolic surrogates of warfarin (flurbiprofen and cyclosporine) that described possible interactions between cranberry juice and warfarin. Two case reports suggested that cranberry juice increased the International Normalized Ratio (INR) of patients taking warfarin, but neither clearly identified cranberry juice as the sole cause of INR elevation. One case report appeared to show a correlation between the effects of cranberry juice and warfarin metabolism. Both clinical trials indicated the lack of an interaction between cranberry juice and CYP isoenzymes 2C9 and 3A, both of which are necessary in warfarin metabolism. More studies are required to determine the potential interaction between cranberry juice and warfarin.

CONCLUSION: The available data do not seem to show a clinically relevant interaction between cranberry juice and warfarin; however, patients taking warfarin with cranberry juice should be cautioned about the potential interaction and monitored closely for INR changes and signs and symptoms of bleeding.

Effect of high-dose cranberry juice on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients

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Authors
Mellen CK, Ford M, Rindone JP
Journal
Br J Clin Pharmacol 70(1):139-42
Abstract

SUBJECT: Case reports suggest an association between cranberry juice and potentiation of warfarin. Studies using 240 ml of cranberry juice daily demonstrated no interaction. It is unknown if higher amounts of cranberry juice will interact with warfarin.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Cranberry juice at 240 ml twice daily does not alter the pharmacodynamics of warfarin.

AIM: To determine if high-dose cranberry juice (240 ml twice daily) alters the pharmacodynamic action of warfarin.

METHODS: Ten male patients taking stable doses of warfarin were given cranberry juice at 240 ml twice daily for 7 days. Prothrombin times were drawn at baseline and days 2, 6 and 8 after administration of the juice. Prothrombin times were averaged for each day and mean times were compared from each study day to baseline using repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between mean prothrombin time at baseline and any day tested during juice administration.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice (240 ml twice daily for 1 week) did not alter the pharmacodynamics of warfarin in patients.

Effects of cranberry juice on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in rats

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Authors
Uesawa Y, Mohri K
Journal
J Pharm Pharmacol 58(8):1067-72
Abstract

Little information is available about drug interactions with cranberry juice (CJ). Using microsomes from the human liver and rat small intestine, this study was designed to determine whether CJ could inhibit CYP3A-mediated nifedipine (NFP) oxidase activity; it showed that CJ was a potent inhibitor of human and rat CYP3A. Preincubation with 10% vol/vol of CJ and 1 mM NADPH for 10 min resulted in significant inhibition of the NFP oxidation activity of human and rat CYP3A (18.2 and 12.6% decreases, respectively, compared with preincubation experiments without NADPH). In addition, the pharmacokinetic interaction between CJ and NFP in vivo was confirmed in rats. In comparison with a control group, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of NFP was approximately 1.6-fold higher when CJ (2 mL) was injected intraduodenally 30 min before the intraduodenal administration of NFP (30 mg kg(-1)). However, the mean residence time, the volume of distribution and the elimination rate constant were not changed significantly. These data suggest that CJ component(s) inhibit the function of enteric CYP3A. In conclusion, it was found that CJ inhibits the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of NFP in both rats and humans. Furthermore, CJ alters NFP pharmacokinetics in rats.

Enhancing health benefits of berries through phenolic antioxidant enrichment: focus on cranberry.`

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Authors
Vattem DA, Ghaedian R, Shetty K
Journal
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 14(2):120-30
Abstract

Emerging epidemiological evidence is increasingly pointing to the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables in managing chronic and infectious diseases. These beneficial effects are now suggested to be due to the constituent phenolic phytochemicals having antioxidant activity. Cranberry like other fruits is also rich in phenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and ellagic acid. Consumption of cranberry has been historically been linked to lower incidences of urinary tract infections and has now been shown to have a capacity to inhibit peptic ulcer-associated bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. Isolated compounds from cranberry have also been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Recent evidence suggests the ability of phytochemical components in whole foods in being more effective in protectively supporting human health than compared to isolated individual phenolic phytochemicals. This implies that the profile of phenolic phytochemicals determines the functionality of the whole food as a result of synergistic interaction of constituent phenolic phytochemicals. Solid state bioprocessing using food grade fungi common in Asian food cultures as well as cranberry phenolic synergies through the addition of functional biphenyls such as ellagic acid and rosmarinic acid along with processed fruit extracts have helped to advance these concepts. These strategies could be further explored to enrich cranberry and cranberry products with functional phytochemicals and further improve their functionality for enhancing health benefits.

Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

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Authors
Ushijima K, Tsuruoka S, Tsuda H, Hasegawa G, Obi Y, Kaneda T, Takahashi M
Journal
Br J Clin Pharmacol 68(2):194-200
Abstract

AIM: To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9.

METHODS: The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics.

RESULTS: Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations.