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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits

Displaying 11 - 20 of 97

Effects of Cranberry (Vaccinum Macrocarpon) Supplementation on Iron Status and Inflammatory Markers in Rowers.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Skarpanska-Stejnborn, A. Basta, P. Trzeciak, J. Michalska, A. Kafkas, M. E. Woitas-Slubowska, D.
Journal: 
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14(7)
Abstract: 

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with cranberry (Vaccinum macrocarpon) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepcidin and selected markers of iron metabolism in rowers subjected to exhaustive exercise. Methods: This double-blind study included 16 members of the Polish Rowing Team. The subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n=9), receiving 1200 mg of cranberry extract for 6 weeks, or to the placebo group (n=7). The participants performed a 2000-m test on a rowing ergometer at the beginning and at the end of the preparatory camp. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein prior to each exercise test, one minute after completing the test, and after a 24-h recovery period. The levels of hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and myoglobin were determined, along with total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unbound iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Both prior and after the supplementation, a significant post-exercise increase in the concentration of IL-6 was observed in both groups. At the end of the study period, cranberry-supplemented athletes presented with significantly higher resting, post-exercise and post-recovery levels of TAC than the controls. However, a significant exercise-induced increase in the concentrations of TNF-alpha, myoglobin and hepcidin was observed solely in the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with cranberry extract contributed to a significant strengthening of antioxidant potential in individuals exposed to strenuous physical exercise. However, supplementation did not exert direct effects on other analyzed parameters: inflammatory markers and indices of iron metabolism (TNF-alpha, hepcidin and myoglobin).

Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Heidarian E; Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Deris F; Rafieian-Kopaei M.
Journal: 
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23(7):999-1015
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. RESULTS: 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases.

Cranberry Extract Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in High-Fat-Fed Obese Mice

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Glisan SL, Ryan C, Neilson AP, Lambert JD
Journal: 
J Nutr Biochem 37:60-66
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls. Hepatic protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-C chemokine ligand 2 were reduced by 28% and 19%, respectively, following CBE supplementation. CBE significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 63%) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B, 24%), as well as a number of genes related to the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome. In conclusion, CBE reduced NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in HF-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. These effects appear to be related to mitigation of TLR4-NF kappa B related signaling; however, further studies into the underlying mechanisms of these hepatoprotective effects are needed.

Polyphenol Extracts Interfere with Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Vitro and Decrease Postprandial Endotoxemia in Human Volunteers

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Wong X, Madrid AM, Tralma K, Castillo R, Carrasco-Pozo C, Navarrete P, Beltran C, Pastene E, Gotteland M
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 26:406-417
Abstract: 

The intestinal absorption of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dietary fat has been implicated in the development of metabolic endotoxemia. This study first compared the ability of polyphenol extracts from grape, cranberry, avocado and apple to interfere with pancreatic lipase and LPS in vitro. The grape extract displayed a higher inhibitory activity of lipase (IC50=8.6+or-1.1 mg/ml) and LPS binding (IC50=90+or-1.1 micro g/ml). Then, a study was carried out in 12 normal weight and 17 overweight/obese subjects to determine the effect of this extract on the postprandial changes in plasma triacylglycerols, LPS and IL-6. The presence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), in which higher levels of bacteria and eventually LPS are present in the upper intestine, i.e. where dietary fat absorption occurs, was also evaluated. Compared with placebo, the grape extract did not affect postprandial triacylglycerolemia but decreased plasma LPS, without affecting the IL-6-associated inflammatory response. SIBO did not affect these variables.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Nardi GM; Farias Januario AG; Freire CG; Megiolaro F; Schneider K; Perazzoli MR; Do Nascimento SR; Gon AC; Mariano LN; Wagner G; Niero R; Locatelli C
Journal: 
Pharmacognosy Research. 8(Suppl 1):S42-9
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. RESULTS: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY: Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this study were the investigation and comparison of chemical composition, antioxidant activity "in vitro" and "in vivo" and anti inflammatory property of berry fruits bought dry form.In summary, two main findings can be addressed with this study: (1) Berry fruits presented antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities "in vitro" and "in vivo"; (2) the extracts of GOJI, CRAN, and BLUE modulate the inflammatory process by different mechanisms.

Atomic force microscopy-guided fractionation reveals the influence of cranberry phytochemicals on adhesion of Escherichia coli.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Gupta P; Song B; Neto C; Camesano TA.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 7(6):2655-66, 2016
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has been long used to prevent infections because of its effect on the adhesion of the bacteria to the host surface. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) comprise of one of the major classes of phytochemicals found in cranberry, which have been extensively studied and found effective in combating adhesion of pathogenic bacteria. The role of other cranberry constituents in impacting bacterial adhesion haven't been studied very well. In this study, cranberry juice fractions were prepared, characterized and tested for their effect on the surface adhesion of the pathogenic clinical bacterial strain E. coli B78 and non-pathogenic control E. coli HB101. The preparations tested included crude cranberry juice extract (CCE); three fractions containing flavonoid classes including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols; selected sub-fractions, and commercially available flavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the adhesion forces between the bacterial surface and the AFM probe after the treatment with the cranberry fractions. Adhesion forces of the non-pathogenic, non fimbriated lab strain HB101 are small (average force 0.19 nN) and do not change with cranberry treatments, whereas the adhesion forces of the pathogenic, Dr adhesion E. coli strain B78 (average force of 0.42 nN) show a significant decrease when treated with cranberry juice extract or fractions (average force of 0.31 nN, 0.37 nN and 0.39 nN with CCE, Fraction 7 and Fraction 4 respectively). In particular, the fractions that contained flavonols in addition to PACs were more efficient at lowering the force of adhesion (average force of 0.31 nN-0.18 nN between different sub-fractions containing flavonols and PACs). The sub-fractions containing flavonol glycosides (from juice, fruit and commercial quercetin) all resulted in reduced adhesion of the pathogenic bacteria to the model probe. This strongly suggests the anti adhesive role of other classes of cranberry compounds in conjunction with already known PACs and may have implications for development of alternative anti bacterial treatments.

Cranberry (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with improvements in vascular function: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose-response, crossover study

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Mateos A; Feliciano RP; Boeres A; Weber T; Dos Santos CN; Ventura MR; Heiss C.
Journal: 
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. , 2016 May 31
Abstract: 

SCOPE: Cranberries are rich in potentially bioactive (poly)phenols. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cranberry juice intake can improve vascular function in healthy men in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and to understand which of the circulating (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with vascular effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial was conducted in 10 healthy males. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were investigated at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h post-consumption of cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534, and 1910 mg of total cranberry (poly)phenols (TP), and a control drink. Plasma (poly)phenol metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF MS using authentic standards. We observed dose-dependent increases in FMD at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h with a peak at 4h and maximal effects with juice containing 1238 mg TP. A total of 60 metabolites were quantified in plasma after cranberry consumption. Twelve (poly)phenol metabolites significantly correlated with the increases in FMD, including ferulic and caffeic acid sulfates, quercetin-3-O-s-D-glucuronide and a gamma-valerolactone sulfate. CONCLUSION: (Poly)phenols in cranberry juice can improve vascular function in healthy males and this is linked to the presence of specific newly identified plasma metabolites.

Deleterious effect of p-cresol on human colonic epithelial cells prevented by proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from fruits and proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Wong X; Carrasco-Pozo C; Escobar E; Navarrete P; Blachier F; Andriamihaja M; Lan A; Tome D; Cires MJ; Pastene E; Gotteland M.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 2016. 64(18):3574-3583
Abstract: 

The protective effect of proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from apples, avocados, cranberries, grapes, or proanthocyanidin microbial metabolites was evaluated in colonic epithelial cells exposed to p-cresol, a deleterious compound produced by the colonic microbiota from L-tyrosine. In HT29 Glc-/+ cells, p-cresol significantly increased LDH leakage and decreased ATP contents, whereas in Caco-2 cell monolayers, it significantly decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance and increased the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran. The alterations induced by p-cresol in HT29 Glc-/+ cells were prevented by the extracts from cranberries and avocados, whereas they became worse by extracts from apples and grapes. The proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites decreased LDH leakage, ameliorating cell viability without improving intracellular ATP. All of the polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites prevented the p-cresol-induced alterations of barrier function. These results suggest that proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin metabolites likely contribute to the protection of the colonic mucosa against the deleterious effects of p-cresol.

Berry (poly)phenols and Cardiovascular Health

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Rodriguez-Mateos A, Heiss C, Borges G, Crozier A
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 62(18):3842-51
Abstract: 

Berries are a rich source of (poly)phenols, including anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols, ellagitannins, and hydroxycinnamates. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the cardiovascular health benefits of diets rich in berries are related to their (poly)phenol content. These findings are supported by small-scale randomized controlled studies (RCTs) that have shown improvements in several surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk such as blood pressure, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and blood lipids after acute and short-term consumption of blueberries, strawberries, cranberries, or purified anthocyanin extracts in healthy or diseased individuals. However, firm conclusions regarding the preventive value of berry (poly)phenols cannot be drawn due to the small number of existing studies and limitations that apply to the available data, such as lack of controls or failure to assess the absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols. Although the current evidence is promising, more long-term RCTs are needed to establish the role of berry (poly)phenols to support cardiovascular health.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Oligosaccharides Decrease Biofilm Formation by Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Sun J, Marais JP, Khoo C, LaPlante K, Vejborg RM, Givskov M, Tolker-Nielsen T, Seeram NP, Rowley DC
Journal: 
J Funct Food 17:235-242
Abstract: 

The preventive effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) against urinary tract infections are supported by extensive studies which have primarily focused on its phenolic constituents. Herein, a phenolic-free carbohydrate fraction (designated cranf1b-F2) was purified from cranberry fruit using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis revealed that the cranf1b-F2 constituents are predominantly oligosaccharides possessing various degrees of polymerisation and further structural analysis (by GC-MS and NMR) revealed mainly xyloglucan and arabinan residues. In antimicrobial assays, cranf1b-F2 (at 1.25 mg/mL concentration) reduced biofilm production by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 strain by over 50% but did not inhibit bacterial growth. Cranf1b-F2 (ranging from 0.625 to 10 mg/mL) also inhibited biofilm formation of the non-pathogenic E. coli MG1655 strain up to 60% in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that cranberry oligosaccharides, in addition to its phenolic constituents, may play a role in its preventive effects against urinary tract infections.

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