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2019

Displaying 41 - 44 of 44

Inhibitory Effects of Fruit Berry Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N, Bandara HMHN, Leishman SJ, Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Eur J Oral Sci. 2018 Dec 28. doi: 10.1111/eos.12602
Abstract: 

Dark-colored fruit berries are a rich source of polyphenols that could provide innovative bioactive molecules as natural weapons against dental caries. High-quality extracts of cranberry, blueberry, and strawberry, and a combination of the three berry extracts (Orophenol), were used to treat 24-h-old Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The grown biofilms were treated with the berry extracts at concentrations ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg ml-1 . Treated biofilms were assessed for metabolic activity, acidogenicity, biovolumes, structural organization, and bacterial viability. The biofilms treated with the cranberry and Orophenol extracts exhibited the most significant reductions in metabolic activity, acid production, and bacterial/exopolysaccharide (EPS) biovolumes, while their structural architecture appeared less compact than the control-treated biofilms. The blueberry extract produced significant reductions in metabolic activity and acidogenicity only at the highest concentration tested, without significantly affecting bacterial/EPS biovolumes or biofilm architecture. Strawberry extracts had no significant effects on S. mutans biofilms. None of the berry extracts were bactericidal for S. mutans. The results indicate that cranberry extract was the most effective extract in disrupting S. mutans virulence properties without significantly affecting bacterial viability. This suggests a potential ecological role for cranberry phenols as non-bactericidal agents capable of modulating pathogenicity of cariogenic biofilms.

Oral Health Benefits of Cranberry: A Review

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
B Alexander, S John
Journal: 
IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) Volume 18, Issue 1 Ver. 2 (January. 2019), PP 41-44
Abstract: 

Cranberry has a unique combination of phytochemicals which are used for treatment of various systemic diseases including oral diseases like caries,periodontitis and oral cancer. Many in vitro studies have outlined the potential health benefits of cranberry but in vivo studies are still inconclusive. Cranberry inhibit acid production, attachment and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans thereby being an effective anticaries agent. It also inhibits host inflammatory response and adherance of periodontal pathogens on tooth surfaces. Proanthocyanidins in cranberries demonstrate significant cancer prevention. The review aims to well into the potential benefits of cranberry in improving oral health as well as a peep into the still unexplored facets of natural medicaments in oral disease prevention.

Some New Findings Regarding the Antiadhesive Activity of Cranberry Phenolic Compounds and Their Microbial-Derived Metabolites against Uropathogenic Bacteria.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
González de Llano D, Liu H, Khoo C, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolomé B.
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Feb 12. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05625
Abstract: 

Findings concerning the antiadhesive activity of cranberry phenolic compounds and their microbial-derived metabolites against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ATCC 53503 and DSM 10791) and Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis 04-1) bacteria in T24 cells are reported. A-Type procyanidins (A2 and cinnamtannin B-1) exhibited antiadhesive activity (at concentrations ≥250 μM), a feature that was not observed for B-type procyanidins (B2). The metabolites hippuric acid and α-hydroxyhippuric acid also showed effective results at concentrations ≥250 μM. With regard to conjugated metabolites, sulfation seemed to increase the antiadhesive activity of cranberry-derived metabolites as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid 3- O-sulfate presented active results, unlike its corresponding nonsulfated form. In contrast, methylation decreased antiadhesive activity as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was found to be active but not its corresponding methylated form (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid). As a whole, this work sustains the antiadhesive activity of cranberry-derived metabolites as one of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of cranberries against urinary tract infections.

Water-Soluble Cranberry Extract Inhibits Vibrio Cholerae Biofilm Formation Possibly Through Modulating the Second Messenger 3',5'-Cyclic Diguanylate Level.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Pederson, D. B. Dong YuQing Blue, L. B. Smith, S. V. Cao, M
Journal: 
PLoS ONE; 2018. 13(11):e0207056.
Abstract: 

Quorum sensing (QS) and nucleotide-based second messengers are vital signaling systems that regulate bacterial physiology in response to changing environments. Disrupting bacterial signal transduction is a promising direction to combat infectious diseases, and QS and the second messengers are undoubtedly potential targets. In Vibrio cholerae, both QS and the second messenger 3', 5' - cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) play a central role in controlling motility, motile-to-sessile life transition, and virulence. In this study, we found that water-soluble extract from the North American cranberry could significantly inhibit V. cholerae biofilm formation during the development/maturation stage by reducing the biofilm matrix production and secretion. The anti-biofilm effect by water-soluble cranberry extract was possibly through modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP level and was independent of QS and the QS master regulator HapR. Our results suggest an opportunity to explore more functional foods to fight stubborn infections through interference with the bacterial signaling systems.

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