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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits

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Does Cranberry Have a Role in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections?

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Thomas D; Rutman M; Cooper K; Abrams A; Finkelstein J; Chughtai B.
Journal: 
Canadian Urological Association Journal. 11(11):E421-E424
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs) are a prevalent and costly condition, with very few therapeutic options. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an oral cranberry supplement on CA-UTIs over a six-month period. METHODS: Subjects with long-term indwelling catheters and recurrent symptomatic CA-UTIs were enrolled to take a once-daily oral cranberry supplement with 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (PACs). Primary outcome was reducing the number of symptomatic CA-UTIs. This was defined by >=103 (cfu)/mL of >=1 bacterial species in a single catheter urine specimen and signs and symptoms compatible with CA-UTI. Secondary outcomes included bacterial counts and resistance patterns to antibiotics. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the trial; 22 patients (mean age 77.22 years, 77.27% were men) completed the study. Cranberry was effective in reducing the number of symptomatic CA-UTIs in all patients (n=22). Resistance to antibiotics was reduced by 28%. Furthermore, colony counts were reduced by 58.65%. No subjects had adverse events while taking cranberry. CONCLUSIONS: The cranberry supplement reduced the number of symptomatic CA-UTIs, antibiotic resistances, and major causative organisms in this cohort. Larger, placebo-controlled studies are needed to further define the role of cranberry in CA-UTIs.

Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements in Spinal Cord Injury Subjects.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Navarrete-Opazo A; Cuitino P; Salas I.
Journal: 
Disability & Health Journal. 10(2):183-197
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. METHODS: Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. RESULTS: Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. CONCLUSIONS: There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI.

The Effect of Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Recurrence of Urinary Tract Infection: Relationship to Baseline Risk Factors

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Maki KC; Nieman KM; Schild AL; Kaspar KL; Khoo C.
Journal: 
Am J Clin Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2017.1370398
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between clinical predictors of urinary tract infection (UTI) and effects of cranberry juice consumption on recurrence in a post hoc analysis of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial in women with a recent history of UTI. METHODS: Participants consumed a cranberry (n = 185) or placebo (n = 188) beverage (240 mL) daily. Odds ratios (OR) from 20 candidate predictor variables were evaluated in univariate analyses to assess clinical UTI incidence relationships in the placebo group. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed. The effects of cranberry juice consumption were evaluated in subsets categorized by the likelihood of a UTI event based on the prediction model. RESULTS: In the placebo group, the final multivariate regression model identified four variables associated with the odds for having >= 1 UTI: intercourse frequency >= 1 time during the prior 4 weeks (OR: 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 5.71; p = 0.057), use of vasectomy or hormonal methods for contraception (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.20, 5.58; p = 0.016), most recent UTI 21%). Incidence rate ratios for the cranberry vs placebo groups were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.22, 2.60; p = 0.663) for those with 21% probability. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that clinical predictors identify women with low and high risk of clinical UTI recurrence, which may be useful for design of clinical studies evaluating preventive therapies.

The Role of Cranberry in Preventing Urinary Tract Infection in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Roshdibonab F, Mohammadbager FazlJoo S, Torbati M, Mohammadi G, Asadloo M, Noshad H
Journal: 
International Journal of Pediatrics, 5 (12). pp. 6457-6468.
Abstract: 

Introduction: Although effectiveness of cranberry for preventing urinary tract infection (UTI) has been reported in Iranian traditional medicine and recent studies there is still controversy in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed with a meta-analytic approach aiming to evaluate the effect of prophylaxis prescription of cranberry in prevention of UTI in children.Methods: In this study, a thorough search was performed in Medline, Embase, Web of Sciences, Scopus and CINHAL databases by the end of August 2017. Using keywords related to urinary tract infection combined with words related to cranberry, search strategy was designed. The articles were summarized and finally, the role of cranberry extract consumption in decreasing the incidence of UTI was evaluated by reporting odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95 CI). Results: In the end, 10 studies were included (414 cases in control group and 380 in cranberry extract treatment group). Analyses showed that prescription of cranberry significantly reduced the odds of UTI manifestation in children compared to placebo (OR=0.31; 95 CI: 0.21 to 0.46; p

Antiadhesive Activity and Metabolomics Analysis of Rat Urine after Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) Administration.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Peron G, Pellizzaro A, Brun P, Schievano E, Mammi S, Sut S, Castagliuolo I, Dall'Acqua S
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem. 65(28):5657-5667
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is used to treat noncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). A-type procyanidins (PAC-A) are considered the active constituents able to inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urinary epithelium. However, the role of PAC-A in UTIs is debated, because of their poor bioavailability, extensive metabolism, limited knowledge about urinary excretion, and contradictory clinical trials. The effects of 35-day cranberry supplementation (11 mg/kg PAC-A, 4 mg/kg PAC-B) were studied in healthy rats using a ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)-based metabolomics approach. Microbial PAC metabolites, such as valeric acid and valerolactone derivatives, were related to cranberry consumption. An increased urinary excretion of glucuronidated metabolites was also observed. In a further experiment, urine samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h after cranberry intake and their antiadhesive properties were tested against uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The 8 h samples showed the highest activity. Changes in urinary composition were studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight (UPLC-QTOF), observing the presence of PAC metabolites. The PAC-A2 levels were measured in all collected samples, and the highest amounts, on the order of ng/mL, were found in the samples collected after 4 h. Results indicate that the antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic bacteria observed after cranberry consumption is ascribable to PAC-A metabolites rather than to a direct PAC-A effect, as the measured PAC-A levels in urine was lower than those reported as active in the literature.

Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Luis A; Domingues F; Pereira L.
Journal: 
Journal of Urology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.078
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We sought to clarify the association between cranberry intake and the prevention of urinary tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review, which complies with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) statement, was done as a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials. RESULTS: The findings clearly showed the potential use of cranberries for the clinical condition of urinary tract infection. Cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of urinary tract infections as indicated by the weighted risk ratio (0.6750, 95% CI 0.5516-0.7965, p <0.0001). The results of subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients at some risk for urinary tract infections were more susceptible to the effects of cranberry ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study could be used by physicians to recommend cranberry ingestion to decrease the incidence of urinary tract infections, particularly in individuals with recurrent urinary tract infections. This would also reduce the administration of antibiotics, which could be beneficial since antibiotics can lead to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

Cranberry capsules to prevent nosocomial urinary tract bacteriuria after pelvic surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Letouzey V; Ulrich D; Demattei C; Alonso S; Huberlant S; Lavigne JP; de Tayrac R.
Journal: 
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 124(6):912-917
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cranberries are able to prevent postoperative urinary bacteriuria in patients undergoing pelvic surgery and receiving transurethral catheterisation.DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.SETTINGS: French tertiary Care centre, University Hospital.POPULATION: A total of 272 women undergoing pelvic surgery aged 18 or older.METHODS: Participants undergoing pelvic surgery were randomised to 36 mg cranberry (proanthocyanidins, PAC) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Statistical analysis was performed by a chi-square test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary and secondary outcomes were postoperative bacteriuria, defined by a positive urine culture, within the first 15 and 40 days, respectively.RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-five participants received the intended treatment: 132 (51.8%) received PAC and 123 (48.2%) received placebo. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics, intra-operative characteristics or duration and type of catheterisation between the two groups. PAC prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of bacteriuria treatment within 15 days of surgery [27% bacteriuria with PAC compared with 25% bacteriuria with placebo: relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 0.78-1.4, P = 0.763). The same result was observed on day 40. Bacteriuria occurred more often in older women with increased length of catheterisation.CONCLUSION: Immediate postoperative prophylaxis with PAC does not reduce the risk of postoperative bacteriuria in patients receiving short-term transurethral catheterisation after pelvic surgery.

Cranberry Extract Inhibits in Vitro Adhesion of F4 and F18+ Escherichia Coli to Pig Intestinal Epithelium and Reduces in Vivo Excretion of Pigs Orally Challenged with F18+ Verotoxigenic E. Coli.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Coddens, A. Loos, M. Vanrompay, D. Remon, J. P. Cox, E.
Journal: 
Veterinary Microbiology 202:64-71
Abstract: 

F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4+ E. coli and F18+ E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20 micro g or 100 micro g/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4+ E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18+ E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10 mg or 100 mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18+ E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1 g/kg or 10 g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10 g/kg) and drinking water (1 g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18+ E. coli.

Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Jensen HD; Struve C; Christensen SB; Krogfelt KA.
Journal: 
Frontiers in Microbiology. 8:542
Abstract: 

The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P < 0.01) of mice drinking fresh cranberry juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P < 0.01) bacterial populations in the bladder, as did the hydrophilic fraction of cranberry juice (P < 0.05). Quinic, malic, shikimic, and citric acid, the preponderant organic acids in cranberry juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P < 0.001), and so did the combination of malic plus citric acid (P < 0.01) and malic plus quinic acid (P < 0.05). The other tested combinations of the organic acids, and the acids administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

Cranberry Juice Concentrate does not Significantly Decrease the Incidence of Acquired Bacteriuria in Female Hip Fracture Patients Receiving Urine Catheter: a Double-Blind Randomized Trial.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Gunnarsson AK; Gunningberg L; Larsson S; Jonsson KB.
Journal: 
Clinical Interventions In Aging. 12:137-143
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate pre-operatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. DESIGN: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. METHOD: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227) were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. RESULT: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39%) in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28%) in the cranberry group (P=0.270) had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270). CONCLUSION: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and indwelling urinary catheter.

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