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2010

Displaying 31 - 40 of 217

New support for a folk remedy: cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Fleet JC
Journal: 
Nutr Rev 52(5):168-70
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has developed a following as a simple, nonpharmacologic means to reduce or treat urinary tract infections, yet the scientific basis for such a claim has been lacking. A new study suggests that bacterial infections (bacteriuria) and associated influx of white blood cells into the urine (pyuria) can be reduced by nearly 50% in elderly women who drink 300 mL of cranberry juice cocktail each day over the course of a 6-month study. The results of this study suggest that consumption of cranberry juice is more effective in treating than preventing bacteriuria and pyuria. Along with earlier reports on the ability of cranberry juice to inhibit bacterial adherence to urinary epithelial cells in cell culture, this new work suggests that drinking cranberry juice each day may be clinically useful. Additional work must be conducted, however, to more completely define the efficacy of cranberry juice.

Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Efros M, Bromberg W, Cossu L, Nakeleski E, Katz AE
Journal: 
Urology 76(4):841-5
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety, tolerability, maximal tolerated dose, and efficacy of a concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, in female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs).

METHODS: The study agent was administered orally at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mL daily for 12 weeks to women with a history of 2.78 ± 0.73 rUTIs

RESULTS: A total of 28 subjects were included in the study. Of these 28 women, the data from 23 were analyzable. The average age was 46.5 ± 12.8 years. The maximal tolerated dose of UTI-STAT was 75 mL/d, and the recommended dose was set at 60 mL/d. The secondary endpoints demonstrated that only 2 (9.1%) of 23 reported a rUTI, a markedly better rate than the historical data. At 12 weeks, the reduction in worry about rUTIs and increased QOL with regard to the physical functioning domain and role limitations from physical health domain, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short-form 36-item questionnaire, were significant (P = .0097). A lower American Urological Association Symptom Index indicating greater QOL was also significant (P = .045).

CONCLUSIONS: The novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend showed a good safety profile and tolerability in both pre- and postmenopausal women with history of rUTIs. The secondary endpoints demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing the incidence of rUTI and increasing QOL. Given this evidence, supplementation might be beneficial in the prevention of rUTIs in this population.

Proanthocyanidins from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human prostate cancer cells via alterations in multiple cellular signalling pathways.

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Déziel BA, Patel K, Neto C, Gottschall-Pass K, Hurta RA
Journal: 
J Cell Biochem 111(3):742-54
Abstract: 

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, and it is believed that an individual's diet affects his risk of developing cancer. There has been an interest in examining phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants, in order to determine their potential anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we document the effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs) from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Cranberry PACs decreased cellular viability of DU145 cells at a concentration of 25 µg/ml by 30% after 6 h of treatment. Treatment of DU145 cells with PACs resulted in an inhibition of both MMPs 2 and 9 activity. PACs increased the expression of TIMP-2, a known inhibitor of MMP activity, and decreased the expression of EMMPRIN, an inducer of MMP expression. PACs decreased the expression of PI-3 kinase and AKT proteins, and increased the phosphorylation of both p38 and ERK1/2. Cranberry PACs also decreased the translocation of the NF-κB p65 protein to the nucleus. Cranberry PACs increased c-jun and decreased c-fos protein levels. These results suggest that cranberry PACs decreases MMP activity through the induction and/or inhibition of specific temporal MMP regulators, and by affecting either the phosphorylation status and/or expression of MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, NF-κB and AP-1 pathway proteins. This study further demonstrates that cranberry PACs are a strong candidate for further research as novel anti-cancer agents.

The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion?

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Avorn J
Journal: 
Adv Exp Med Biol 408:185-6

The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber.

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Habash MB, Van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G
Journal: 
Can J Microbiol 45(8):691-4
Abstract: 

In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein content. Surface tension measurements of the collected urine showed that both water and cranberry supplementation consistently produced urine with surface tensions higher than the control or urine collected following ascorbic acid intake. These urine samples were also employed to study uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber in a parallel plate flow chamber. Urine obtained after ascorbic acid or cranberry supplementation reduced the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Candida albicans. Conversely, urine obtained from subjects with increased water intake vastly increased the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent E. coli and E. faecalis (P

Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population

Posted: 
November 16, 2010
Authors: 
Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, Potvin G, Wells G, Schillinger JF
Journal: 
Can J Urol 2(1):98-102
Abstract: 

The objective of the study was to evaluate liquid cranberry products as prophylaxis against bacterial urinary tract infection in a pediatric neuropathic bladder population. Forty cases managed by clean intermittent catheterization with or without pharmacotherapy were enrolled in a randomized single-blind cross-over study. Subjects ingested 15 mL/kg/day of cranberry cocktail or water for six months followed by the reverse for another six months. Initial catheter urine samples and subsequent monthly and interim cultures were obtained. Associated symptoms were recorded along with follow-up attendance/compliance registry. The number of negative culture months to the number of months contributed was tabulated and compared between interventions. Individual, cumulative and antimicrobial subset analysis was performed. Twenty one patients completed the study;12 dropped out for reasons related to the cranberry (taste, caloric load and cost); seven patients dropped out for other reasons (parents too busy, death, no stated reason). Wilcoxon matched-pairs Signed-ranks analysis revealed no difference between intervention periods (2-tailed P=.5566 [whole group]; p=.2845 [antimicrobial subset]) with respect to infection. Fewer infections were observed in nine patients taking cranberry juice and in nine patients given water; no difference was noted in three. Liquid cranberry products, on a daily basis, at the dosage employed, did not have any effect greater than that of water in preventing urinary tract infections in this pediatric neuropathic bladder population.

Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Ofek I, Goldhar J, Sharon N
Journal: 
Adv Exp Med Biol 408:179-83.
Abstract: 

No abstract

Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Reid G, Hsiehl J, Potter P, Mighton J, Lam D, Warren D and Stephenson J
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 39(1):26-30
Abstract: 

STUDY DESIGN: A pilot study of 15 spinal cord injured patients. Objective: To determine whether alteration of fluid intake and use of cranberry juice altered the bacterial biofilm load in the bladder. SETTING: London, Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Urine samples were collected on day 0 (start of study), on day 7 following each patient taking one glass of water three times daily in addition to normal diet, and on day 15 following each patient taking one glass of cranberry juice thrice daily. One urine sample was sent for culture and a second processed to harvest, examine by light microscopy and Gram stain non-squamous uroepithelial cells to generate bacterial adhesion per 50 cells data. RESULTS: The results showed that cranberry juice intake significantly reduced the biofilm load compared to baseline (P=0.013). This was due to a reduction in adhesion of Gram negative (P=0.054) and Gram positive (P=0.022) bacteria to cells. Water intake did not significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion or biofilm presence. CONCLUSION: The findings provide evidence in support of further, larger clinical trials into the use of functional foods, particularly cranberry juice, to reduce the risk of UTI in a patient population highly susceptible to morbidity and mortality associated with drug resistant uropathogens

Does cranberry juice have antibacterial activity?

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L and Cesario TC
Journal: 
JAMA 283(13):1691
Abstract: 

No abstract - Methods: We tested a 5-fold concentrated preparation of the juice to simulate the cranberry concentrate currently available commercially. The concentrate was diluted 1:1 with trypticase soy broth and adjusted to a pH of 7.0 to ensure that the results would not be confounded by the acidity of the medium. We added an inoculum of approximately 104 colony-forming units per milliliter from an overnight culture of a variety of American Type Culture Collection–quality control strains both to plain broth and the broth to which the cranberry juice had been added. Both cultures were incubated at 35°C and bacterial counts performed in duplicate at 90 minutes and 24 hours.

Effect of american cranberry (Cysticlean) on Escherichia coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells. In vitro and in vivo study.

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Risco E, Miguelez C, Sanchez de Badajoz E, Rouseaud A
Journal: 
Arch Esp Urol 63(6):422-30
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: The American cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) are the main responsible for its efficacy in urinary tract infections. Their mechanism of action is related to inhibition of Escherichia coli to urothelial cells. Cysticlean contains an extract of American cranberry which provides 118 mg of PACs per dose. The activity of Cysticlean tablets on Escherichia Coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells has been studied in vitro. Moreover, the activity of Cistyclean both in powder for oral suspension and tablets has been compared ex-vivo. METHODS: The rats received both Cysticlean preparations per orem, and urine from each animal was collected during the following 16 hours and preincubated with E. coli. Subsequently, bacteria were incubated with T24 cells. After 1 hour the number of bacteria adhered per cell was calculated. For the in vitro study, E. Coli preincubated at various concentrations of the products were incubated with T24 cells and the same process previously referred was carried out. RESULTS: Urine samples from rats taking Cysticlean powder for oral suspension and tablets (118 mg PACs/animal) showed an important inhibition of E. Coli adherence (83% and 52%respectively). The inferior dose of 59 mg PACs/animal also showed marked inhibition of E. Coli adherence (29% after Cysticlean tablets intake and 40% for powder). In vitro, Cysticlean showed inhibition of bacterial adherence in all tested concentrations: 5, 25 and 75 PACs mg/ml, diminishing the number og bacteria adhered to epithelial cells by 25%, 36% and 34% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cysticlean shows a significant inhibition of E. Coli adherence to urothelial cells. Cysticlean powder for suspensión preparation is more effective tha tablets. Cysticlean powder for suspensión is well tolerated, and compliance has been observed. Its use is very recommendable in pediatric urinary tract infection prophylaxis. Due to the variety of products with American cranberry extracts in the market, with different proanthocyanidins declared content, it would be interesting to compare their activity using established pharmacological methods.

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