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2010

Displaying 41 - 50 of 217

Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG
Journal: 
Eur J Clin Nutr 54(5):405-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted for by an increase in vitamin C rather than phenolics. This also accounted for the lack of an effect of the phenolic-rich but vitamin C-low blueberry juice.

Lack of effect of ascorbic acid, hippuric acid, and methenamine (urinary formaldehyde) on the copper-reduction glucose test in geriatric patients

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Nahata MC, McLeod DC
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 28(5):230-3
Abstract: 

Ascorbic acid and hippuric acid (from cranberry juice) are commonly used to acidify the urine for the purpose of enhancing the degradation of therapeutic methenamine mandelate to urinary formaldehyde. A study was made of 27 nondiabetic geriatric patients with indwelling Foley catheters and chronic bacteriuria who were treated with methenamine mandelate (4 gm), ascorbic acid (4 gm), and cranberry cocktail (1 liter) daily. All of 972 urine samples showed formaldehyde in mean concentrations between 14 and 25 microgram/ml. No glucose was found when the urine was tested by the copper-reduction method. In vitro false positive reactions reported in the literature do not appear to be duplicated as an in vivo problem.

Potential of cranberry powder for management of hyperglycemia using in vitro models

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Pinto Mda S, Ghaedian R, Shinde R, Shetty K
Journal: 
J Med Food 13(5):1036-44
Abstract: 

Aqueous solutions of two different cranberry powders (CP and CP-SAB) were evaluated for organic acids, sugars, total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of -amylase, -glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolics content was 11 and 51 mg/g of sample dry weight for CP and CP-SAB, respectively. p-Coumaric acid and quercetin derivatives were the main phenolic compounds identified in the cranberry powders. CP-SAB had -glucosidase inhibitory activity that increased with increased dose (1-5 mg/mL) from 60% to 100% inhibition. There was limited amount of -amylase inhibitory activity that reached a maximum of 40% inhibition at 5 mg/mL treatment. Significant ACE inhibitory activity was detected for CP-SAB at 100 and 200 mg/mL sample concentrations. These in vitro results indicate the potential of cranberry powders as dietary supplement and food-based strategies for potential hyperglycemia management. This biochemical rationale provides the basis for further design of animal and clinical studies using standardized extracts.

A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Campbell G, Pickles T, D'yachkova Y
Journal: 
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 15(6):322-8
Abstract: 

AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess whether the oral intake of cranberry juice cocktail compared with apple juice was associated with a significant difference in urinary symptoms experienced during radical external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate carcinoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve men with prostate cancer were randomised to either 354 ml cranberry juice or apple juice a day. Stratification was based on a history of a previous transurethral resection of prostate (TURP yes/no) and baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS or = 6) of urinary symptoms.

RESULTS: The maximum IPSS (MRT) and the maximum change in IPSS from baseline (DRT) are used to report the results. We analysed the effects of juice allocation on DRT and MRT using analysis of covariates (ANCOVA). We observed no significant difference for DRT (P = 0.39) or MRT (P = 0.76) related to the consumption of cranberry compared with apple juice. However, we found a significant relationship between the history of a previous TURP and both DRT (P = 0.01) and MRT (P = 0.01). The history of a previous TURP was associated with lower values for both end points. Baseline IPSS was significant for DRT (P = 0.004) and MRT (P or = 6 cut point on MRT (P

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows no significant difference in the urinary symptoms experienced during EBRT related to the consumption of cranberry juice compared with apple juice.

Anti-inflammatory activity of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathogens

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Bodet C, Chandad F, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Dent Res 85(3):235-9
Abstract: 

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting oral tissues. The continuous, high production of cytokines by host cells triggered by periodontopathogens is thought to be responsible for the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Macrophages play a critical role in this host inflammatory response to periodontopathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-dialyzable material prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on the pro-inflammatory cytokine response of macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Escherichia coli. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and Regulated on Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) production by macrophages treated with the cranberry fraction prior to stimulation by LPS was evaluated by ELISA. Our results clearly indicate that the cranberry fraction was a potent inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses induced by LPS. This suggests that cranberry constituents may offer perspectives for the development of a new therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Wilson T, Porcari JP, Harbin D
Journal: 
Life Sci 62(24):A381-6
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice consumption is often used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but the effect of cranberry juice on heart disease has not been investigated. We evaluated how a cranberry extract containing 1,548 mg gallic acid equivalents/liter (initial pH=2.50) affected low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by 10 micromolar cupric sulfate. When LDL oxidation took place in the presence of diluted cranberry extracts, the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LDL electrophoretic mobility were reduced. LDL electrophoretic migration was also reduced when the cranberry extract had a pH of 7.00 prior to dilution. This study suggests that cranberry extracts have the ability to inhibit the oxidative modification of LDL particles.

Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Tsukada K, Tokunaga K, Iwama T, Mishima Y, Tazawa K, Fujimaki M.
Journal: 
Ostomy Wound Manage 40(9):60-2, 64, 66-8
Abstract: 

In urostomy patients, peristomal skin problems are common and may stem from alkaline urine. Cranberry juice appears to acidify urine and has bacteriostatic properties, and is widely recommended for the reduction of urinary tract infections. Therefore, it is hypothesized that drinking cranberry juice might also prevent and/or improve skin complications for urostomy patients. To test this hypothesis, pH measurements of the skin around the stoma and of the urine of 13 urostomy patients were taken before and after instituting a regimen of drinking 160 to 320 g of cranberry juice each day for an average period of six months. Results showed an improvement in skin condition from 6 patients with erythema, maceration or pseudoepithelial hyperplasia at the beginning of the study to 2 patients with maceration or PEH. The average pH of the urine taken from the patients' pouches decreased a statistically significant amount from 8.0 to 7.3 (p = 0.0277), yet unexpectantly, the average pH of the fresh urine increased a statistically significant amount from 5.8 to 6.2 (p = 0.0178). Other results were not statistically significant. The authors conclude that while drinking cranberry juice did not appear to acidify the urine as expected, improvements were still seen in the skin conditions of the study participants, suggesting that drinking cranberry juice does positively impact the incidence of skin complications for these patients.

Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis.

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR
Journal: 
Urology 57(1):26-9
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: Cranberry juice has been recommended for patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. However, cranberry juice has a moderately high concentration of oxalate, a common component of kidney stones, and should be limited in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. Cranberry concentrate tablets are currently available at nutrition stores and are sold as promoters of urinary tract health. After one of our patients with a distant history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis developed recurrent stones following self-administration of cranberry concentrate tablets, we sought to investigate the potential lithogenic properties of cranberry supplements.

METHODS: Five healthy volunteers on a normal diet provided 24-hour urine collection for pH, volume, creatinine, oxalate, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, sodium, citrate, magnesium, and potassium. Cranberry tablets were administered to these volunteers at the manufacturer's recommended dosage for 7 days. On the seventh day, a second 24-hour urine collection was obtained.

RESULTS: The urinary oxalate levels in the volunteers significantly increased (P = 0.01) by an average of 43.4% while receiving cranberry tablets. The excretion of potential lithogenic ions calcium, phosphate, and sodium also increased. However, inhibitors of stone formation, magnesium and potassium, rose as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry concentrate tablets are marketed for urinary tract ailments. Physicians and manufacturers of cranberry products should make an effort to educate patients at risk for nephrolithiasis against ingestion of these dietary supplements.

Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Gettman MT, Ogan K, Brinkley LJ, Adams-Huet B, Pak CY, Pearle MS
Journal: 
J Urol 174(2):590-4
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of cranberry juice on urinary stone risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 normal subjects and 12 calcium oxalate stone formers underwent 2, 7-day phases of study in random order while on a controlled metabolic diet. Subjects ingested 1 l of cranberry juice (CBJ) daily in 1 phase and 1 l of deionized water in the other phase. On the last 2 days of each phase 2, 24-hour urine collections and blood samples were obtained for stone risk factors and serum chemistries.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found between normal subjects and stone formers in response to CBJ and, therefore, the groups were combined. CBJ significantly increased urinary calcium (from 154 to 177 mg per day, p =0.0008) and urinary oxalate (from 26.4 to 29.2 mg per day, p =0.04), thereby increasing urinary saturation of calcium oxalate by 18%. Urinary citrate was unchanged and urinary magnesium increased slightly. Urinary pH decreased (from 5.97 to 5.67, p =0.0005), and urinary ammonium, titratable acidity and net acid excretion increased during CBJ ingestion. Urinary uric acid decreased (from 544 to 442 mg per day, p

CONCLUSIONS: CBJ exerts a mixed effect on urinary stone forming propensity. It reduces urinary pH likely by providing an acid load and decreases urinary uric acid perhaps by retarding urate synthesis. Overall CBJ increases the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation but decreases the risk of brushite stones.

Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO
Journal: 
J Pediatr 135(6):698-702
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cranberry prophylaxis on rates of bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving clean intermittent catheterization.

DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 15 children receiving cranberry concentrate or placebo concentrate for 6 months (3 months receiving one concentrate, followed by 3 months of the other). Weekly home visits were made. During each visit, a sample of bladder urine was obtained by intermittent catheterization. Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection and all medications were recorded, and juice containers were counted.

RESULTS: During consumption of cranberry concentrate, the frequency of bacteriuria remained high. Cultures of 75% (114 of 151) of the 151 samples obtained during consumption of placebo were positive for a pathogen (>/=10(4) colony-forming units/mL) compared with 75% (120 of 160) of the 160 samples obtained during consumption of cranberry concentrate. Escherichia coli remained the most common pathogen during placebo and cranberry periods. Three symptomatic infections each occurred during the placebo and cranberry periods. No significant difference was observed in the acidification of urine in the placebo group versus the cranberry group (median, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriuria in patients with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization is 70%; cranberry concentrate had no effect on bacteriuria in this population.

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