Impact of cranberry juice and proanthocyanidins (PACs) on the zeta potentials of Escherichia coli and uroepithelial cells
Bacterial surface properties, such as electrostatic potential play an important role in the bacterial adhesion process, which is widely considered as the first step leading to infections. Cranberry juice and its compound A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) were used to treat two isogenic E. coli strains and human uroepithelial cells and the zeta potentials were measured at several cranberry juice or PACs concentrations. P fimbriae were shown to be slightly positively charged, which helps bacteria adhere onto mammalian cells. PACs significantly decreased the bacterial zeta potentials from -15.6 ± 0.9 mV to -41.5 ± 0.7 mV, which increased the electrostatic repulsion forces to mammalian cells. Cranberry juice treatment did not change bacterial zeta potentials significantly, ranging from -14.9 ± 1.8 mV to -16.3 ± 0.8 mV. The abundance of other compounds in cranberry juice may have blocked the influence of PACs, considering the relatively small proportion of PACs in cranberry juice.