Bioactive Components of Polyphenol-Rich and Non-Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Fruit Extracts and Their Chemopreventive Effects on Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer
Cranberries contain various constituents relevant to human health. Our previous study demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of whole cranberry against colon cancer in mice. In order to determine the role of different cranberry secondary metabolites in inhibiting colon cancer, cranberry ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and polyphenol extract (PPE) were obtained. The free-radical scavenging activities and chemical composition of the cranberry extracts were determined. EAE consisted of triterpenes and sterols and a trace amount of proanthocyanidins. PPE mainly contained polyphenol with a trace amount of triterpenes. The chemopreventive effects of orally administered EAE and PPE on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis were determined in mice. Dietary EAE and PPE significantly suppressed tumor metrics without noticeable adverse effects. Gene expression levels of key proinflammatory cytokines were also attenuated by EAE and PPE in the mouse colon. In conclusion, the novel cranberry extracts may offer an efficacious and safe means to prevent colonic tumorigenesis in humans.