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A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects against endogenous exposure to persistent organic pollutants during weight loss in mice

Choi SoYun [Choi, S. Y. B.]; Varin, T. V.; St-Pierre, P.; Pilon, G.; Tremblay, A.; Marette, A..
Food and Chemical Toxicology; 2020. 146.

The dramatic rise in the global occurrence of obesity and associated diseases calls for new strategies to promote weight loss. However, while the beneficial effects of weight loss are well known, rapid loss of fat mass can also lead to the endogenous release of liposoluble molecules with potential harmful effects, such as persistent organic pollutants (POP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CE) on POP release and their potential deleterious effects during weight loss of obese mice. C57BL/6 J mice were fed an obesogenic diet with or without a mixture of POP for 12 weeks and then changed to a low-fat diet to induce weight loss and endogenous POP release. The POP-exposed mice were then separated in two groups during weight loss, receiving either CE or the vehicle. Unexpectedly, despite the higher fat loss in the CE-treated group, the circulating levels of POP were not enhanced in these mice. Moreover, glucose homeostasis was further improved during CE-induced weight loss, as revealed by lower fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance as compared to vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the CE extract also induced changes in the gut microbiota after weight loss in POP-exposed mice, including blooming of Parvibacter, a member of the Coriobacteriaceae family which has been predicted to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism. Our data thus suggests that the gut microbiota can be targeted by polyphenol-rich extracts to protect from increased POP exposure and their detrimental metabolic effects during rapid weight loss