Effects of Antioxidant in Adjunct with Periodontal Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
This review investigated whether the adjunctive use of antioxidants with periodontal therapy improves periodontal parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. A systematic and extensive literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted before April 2021 was performed on the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. A meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the clinical outcomes following periodontal therapy. After independent screening of 137 initial records, nine records from eight RCTs were included. The risk-of-bias assessment revealed that all RCTs had methodological weaknesses regarding selective bias, although other risk factors for bias were not evident. This meta-analysis of two RCTs showed that periodontal pocket depths were significantly reduced in the groups treated with combined non-surgical periodontal therapy and melatonin than in those treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy alone. The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the adjunctive use of melatonin, resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids with cranberry juice, propolis, and aloe vera gel with periodontal therapy significantly improves periodontal disease parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes, and melatonin application combined with non-surgical periodontal therapy might significantly reduce periodontal pocket depth. However, there are still limited studies of melatonin in combination with non-surgical periodontal therapy in Type 2 diabetic patients, and more well-designed RCTs are required to be further investigated.