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Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate Microbial Ecological Effects of CPP-ACP and Cranberry on Dental Plaque

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Philip N; Leishman SJ; Bandara HMHN; Healey DL; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Jdr Clinical & Translational Research. 5(2):118-126, 2020 04.
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to dental caries prevention play a key role in attaining long-term control over the disease and maintaining a symbiotic oral microbiome. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the microbial ecological effects of 2 interventional dentifrices: a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) dentifrice and the same dentifrice supplemented with a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract. METHODS: The interventional toothpastes were compared with each other and with an active control fluoride dentifrice in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to determine changes in the bacterial loads of 14 key bacterial species (8 caries associated and 6 health associated) in the dental plaque of trial participants after they used the dentifrices for 5 to 6 wk. RESULTS: From the baseline to the recall visit, significant differences were observed between the treatment groups in the bacterial loads of 2 caries-associated bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans [P < 0.001] and Veillonella parvula [P < 0.001]) and 3 health-associated bacterial species (Corynebacterium durum [P = 0.008], Neisseria flavescens [P = 0.005], and Streptococcus sanguinis [P < 0.001]). Compared to the fluoride control dentifrice, the CPP-ACP dentifrice demonstrated significant differences for S. mutans (P = 0.032), C. durum (P = 0.007), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001), while combination CPP-ACP-cranberry dentifrice showed significant differences for S. mutans (P < 0.001), V. parvula (P < 0.001), N. flavescens (P = 0.003), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in the bacterial load comparisons between the CPP-ACP and combination dentifrices for any of the targeted bacterial species (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results indicate that dentifrices containing CPP-ACP and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts can influence a species-level shift in the ecology of the oral microbiome, resulting in a microbial community less associated with dental caries (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ANZCTR 12618000095268). KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: The results of this randomized controlled trial indicate that dentifrices containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts were able to beneficially modulate the microbial ecology of dental plaque in a group of high caries-risk patients. This could contribute toward lowering the risk of developing new caries lesions, an important goal sought by patients, clinicians, and policy makers.

The effects of cranberry on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Pourmasoumi, M.; Hadi, A.; Najafgholizadeh, A.; Joukar, F.; Mansour-Ghanaei, F
Journal: 
Clinical Nutrition; 2020. 39(3):774-788
Abstract: 

Background & aims: The impetus for the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of cranberry supplementation on cardiovascular disease metabolic risk factors in adult populations. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar up to June 2018, to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of cranberry supplementation on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. Results: The results of the pooled effect size indicated that cranberry administration significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and body mass index. No statistically significant change was observed in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and intercellular adhesion molecule. Stratified analysis showed that SBP reduction was more pronounced in studies with 50 mean age participants. Also, subgroup analysis suggested a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein concentrations in subgroups with subjects <50 mean age, and triacylglycerol levels in subsets with cranberry administered in juice form. Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests cranberry supplementation may be effective in managing systolic blood pressure, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein in younger adults. Further high-quality studies are needed to confirm these results

Suppression of Helicobacter Pylori Infection by Daily Cranberry Intake: A Double‐Blind, Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Trial

Posted: 
September 17, 2020
Authors: 
Zhe‐Xuan Li,* Jun‐Ling Ma,* Yang Guo,* Wei‐Dong Liu,† Ming Li,† Lan‐Fu Zhang,† Yang Zhang,* Tong Zhou,* Jing‐Ying Zhang,* Ha‐Er Gao,* Xiao‐Ying Guo,* Dong‐Man Ye,‡ Wen‐Qing Li,* Wei‐Cheng You* and Kai‐Feng Pan*
Journal: 
JGH doi:10.1111/jgh.15212
Abstract: 

Background and aim: Dietary strategies that contribute to reducing incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection without negative side effects are highly desirable owing to worldwide bacterial prevalence and carcinogenesis potential. The aim of this study was to determine dosage effect of daily cranberry consumption on H. pylori suppression over time in infected adults to assess the potential of this complementary management strategy in a region with high gastric cancer risk and high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods: This double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled trial on 522 H. pylori‐positive adults evaluated dose–response effects of proanthocyanidin‐standardized cranberry juice, cranberry powder, or their placebos on suppression of H. pylori at 2 and 8 weeks by 13C‐urea breath testing and eradication at 45 days post‐intervention. Results: H. pylori‐negative rates in placebo, low‐proanthocyanidin, medium‐ proanthocyanidin, and high‐proanthocyanidin cranberry juice groups at week 2 were 13.24%, 7.58%, 1.49%, and 13.85% and at week 8 were 7.35%, 7.58%, 4.48%, and 20.00%, respectively. Consumption of high‐proanthocyanidin juice twice daily (44 mg proanthocyanidin/240‐mL serving) for 8 weeks resulted in decreased H. pylori infection rate by 20% as compared with other dosages and placebo (P < 0.05). Percentage of H. pylori‐negative participants increased from 2 to 8 weeks in subjects who consumed 44 mg proanthocyanidin/day juice once or twice daily, showing a statistically significant positive trend over time. Encapsulated cranberry powder doses were not significantly effective at either time point. Overall trial compliance was 94.25%. Cranberry juice and powder were well‐tolerated. Conclusions: Twice‐daily consumption of proanthocyanidin‐standardized cranberry juice may help potentiate suppression of H. pylori infection. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800017522, per WHO ICTRP.

Antibiofilm Properties of Triclosan with EDTA or Cranberry as Foley Catheter Lock Solutions.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Ayyash M; Shehabi AA; Mahmoud NN; Al-Bakri AG.
Journal: 
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 127(6):1876-1888
Abstract: 

AIMS: To investigate the efficiency of triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cranberry alone or in combinations against Escherichia coli strains as urinary catheter lock solutions to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections.METHODS AND RESULTS: Viable counting was used to assess antibiofilm activities for triclosan, EDTA and cranberry alone or in combinations against E. coli strains embedded in biofilm onto all-silicon Foley catheter surface. The results revealed that combination of triclosan (10 mg ml-1 /EDTA 30 mg ml-1 ) when filling the catheter balloon was able to eradicate and prevent biofilm formation among all tested E. coli including the resistant strains, whereas triclosan (8.5 mg ml-1 )/ cranberry (103 mg ml-1 ) combination was a successful catheter lock solution by preventing all tested strains from adhering onto catheter surface when filled via the eye hole.CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry were significantly effective in eradicating and preventing biofilm formation of the tested E. coli strains on Foley catheters.SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Combinations of triclosan/EDTA and triclosan/cranberry have a promising application as nonantibiotic catheter lock solution.

Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effects of Different Mouthrinses against Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Abu-Obaid E; Salama F; Abu-Obaid A; Alanazi F; Salem M; Auda S.
Journal: 
Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 43(6):398-407
Abstract: 

Purpose: To assess the antimicrobial effects of different natural and semi-natural mouthrinses on isolates of S. mutans obtained from the saliva of Saudi children and reference strains of S mutans (ATCC 25175). Study design: Saliva samples were collected from 20 children. Natural and semi-natural mouthrinses included were herbal mix mouthrinse, cranberry mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, cranberry extract mixed with chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse, chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse with alcohol (positive control), and distilled water (negative control). The microbiological examination tests were minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration, and zone of inhibition for the saliva isolates of S. mutans while zone of inhibition test only for reference strain of S. mutans. Results: For reference strain in a comparison with the distilled water, the herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly increased zones of inhibition by 36.38, 36.25, 26.13, 17.75, and 12.38, respectively. For saliva isolates in a comparison with the distilled water, the herbal mix, cranberry, cranberry mixed with chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine, and chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly increased zones of inhibition by 38.00, 34.25, 22.94, 16.50, and 16.44, respectively. Chlorhexidine with alcohol showed significantly lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration than the other groups. Conclusions: Herbal mix and cranberry mouthrinses could be effective natural alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse with or without alcohol in affecting tested parameters.

Cranberry Extracts Promote Growth of Bacteroidaceae and Decrease Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in A Guman Gut Simulator Model.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
O'Connor, K. Morrissette, M. Strandwitz, P. Ghiglieri, M. Caboni, M. Liu HaiYan Khoo, C. D'Onofrio, A. Lewis, K.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE; 2019. 14(11):e0224836.
Abstract: 

The opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli, a common member of the human gut microbiota belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causative agent of the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The gut microbiota serves as a reservoir for uropathogenic E. coli where they are shed in feces, colonize the periurethral area, and infect the urinary tract. Currently, front line treatment for UTIs consists of oral antibiotics, but the rise of antibiotic resistance is leading to higher rates of recurrence, and antibiotics cause collateral damage to other members of the gut microbiota. It is commonly believed that incorporation of the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, into the diet is useful for reducing recurrence of UTIs. We hypothesized such a benefit might be explained by a prebiotic or antimicrobial effect on the gut microbiota. As such, we tested cranberry extracts and whole cranberry powder on a human gut microbiome-derived community in a gut simulator and found that cranberry components broadly modulate the microbiota by reducing the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and increasing the abundance of Bacteroidaceae. To identify the specific compounds responsible for this, we tested a panel of compounds isolated from cranberries for activity against E. coli, and found that salicylate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both laboratory E. coli and human UTI E. coli isolates. In a gut simulator, salicylate reduced levels of Enterobacteriaceae and elevated Bacteroidaceae in a dose dependent manner.

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Neutralize the Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Amel Ben Lagha, Amy Howell and Daniel Grenier
Journal: 
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110662
Abstract: 

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been strongly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The capacity of A. actinomycetemcomitans to produce a leukotoxin (LtxA) that activates pyroptosis in macrophages and induces the release of endogenous danger signals is thought to play a key role in the disease process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) on gene expression and cytotoxic activities of LtxA. We showed that cranberry PACs dose-dependently attenuate the expression of genes making up the leukotoxin operon, including ltxB and ltxC, in the two strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans tested. Cranberry PACs (≥62.5 µg/mL) protected macrophages against the cytotoxic effect of purified LtxA. Moreover, cranberry PACs reduced caspase-1 activation in LtxA-treated macrophages and consequently decreased the release of both IL-1β and IL-18, which are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and contribute to the progression of periodontitis by increasing cell migration and osteoclastogenesis. In addition, cranberry PACs reduced the expression of genes encoding the P2X7 receptor and NALP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3), which play key roles in pore formation and cell death. Lastly, cranberry PACs blocked the binding of LtxA to macrophages and consequently reduced the LtxA-mediated cytotoxicity. In summary, the present study showed that cranberry PACs reduced LtxA gene expression in A. actinomycetemcomitans and neutralized the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory responses of human macrophages treated with LtxA. Given these properties, cranberry PACs may represent promising molecules for prevention and treatment of the aggressive form of periodontitis caused by A. actinomycetemcomitans.

Dietary Berries, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Human Feeding Trials.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Calvano, A. Izuora, K. Oh, E. C. Ebersole, J. L. Lyons, T. J. Basu, A.
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6227-6243
Abstract: 

Dietary berries are a rich source of several nutrients and phytochemicals and in recent years, accumulating evidence suggests they can reduce risks of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the role of dietary berries (taken as fresh, frozen, or other processed forms) on insulin resistance and biomarkers of T2D in human feeding studies. Reported feeding trials involve different berries taken in different forms, and consequently differences in nutritional or polyphenol composition must be considered in their interpretation. Commonly consumed berries, especially cranberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance, and in adults with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In non-acute long-term studies, these berries either alone, or in combination with other functional foods or dietary interventions, can improve glycemic and lipid profiles, blood pressure and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. Studies specifically in people with T2D are few, and more knowledge is needed. Nevertheless, existing evidence, although sparse, suggests that berries have an emerging role in dietary strategies for the prevention of diabetes and its complications in adults. Despite the beneficial effects of berries on diabetes prevention and management, they must be consumed as part of a healthy and balanced diet.

Role of Berry Bioactive Compounds on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Basu, A.
Journal: 
Nutrients; 2019. 11(9):1983
Abstract: 

Blood lipids are an important biomarker of cardiovascular health and disease. Among the lipid biomarkers that have been widely used to monitor and predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD), elevated LDL and low HDL cholesterol (C), as well as elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, deserve special attention in their predictive abilities, and thus have been the targets of several therapeutic and dietary approaches to improving lipid profiles. Among natural foods and nutraceuticals, dietary berries are a rich source of nutrients, fiber, and various types of phytochemicals. Berries as whole fruits, juices, and purified extracts have been shown to lower total and LDL-C, and increase HDL-C in clinical studies in participants with elevated blood lipids, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This short review aimed to further discuss the mechanisms and magnitude of the lipid-lowering effects of dietary berries, with emphasis on reported clinical studies. Based on the emerging evidence, colorful berry fruits may thus be included in a healthy diet for the prevention and management of CVD.

The Effect of Cranberry Fruit Extract on Alpha -Synuclein Protein Expression using Immunostaining Techniques

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Kumar, J. Sarvesh; Priya, V. Vishnu; Gayathri, R.
Journal: 
Drug Invention Today . Jun2019, Vol. 11 Issue 6, p1506-1508
Abstract: 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the neuroprotective effect of cranberry fruit extract by reducing the release of this biomarker by immunostaining techniques. Objective: The present study is to find out the alpha-lipoic acid cranberry fruit extract on alpha-synuclein protein expression using immunostaining techniques. Materials and Methods: The neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of cranberry fruit extract and were incubated with primary antibody alpha-synuclein and the antigen-antibody activity was visualized under a light microscope, and the results were quantified using image analysis software. Results: The study infers that when cranberry extract is added to the neurotoxic cell lines, the antigen-antibody reaction is interfered and as the concentration of cranberry fruit extract increases the corresponding decrease in the expression of the alpha-synuclein protein can be seen. Conclusion: Cranberry fruit extract proves to effectively reduce the expression of alpha-synuclein protein in neurotoxic cell lines so further research must be conducted in this field to discover the useful effects of cranberry so that it can be used as a neuroprotective agent in medicines to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

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