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Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Microbial Efficacy of Cranberry Extract and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on Periodontal Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Dandekar S, Deshpande N, Dave D
Journal: 
J. Periodont. Pract. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20936/jpp/170102
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate is considered as the gold standard among various anti-plaque agents. However, many local side effects have been reported on its long term use. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, including flavonoids and proanthrocyanidins. Insufficient evidences are available to support antimicrobial property of Cranberry extract mouthwash in context to red, orange and green complexes of periodontal pathogens and even comparison of same with clinically used and accepted 0.2% Chlorhexidine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sterilised nutrient agar plates were inoculated with suspensions of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and A. actinomycetemcomitans (overnight cultures grown at 37° on nutrient agar). The strains were allowed to grow in strict anaerobic condition. 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml Cranberry extract, 0.2% Chlorhexidine and distilled water were added into wells. Plates were then again incubated at 37° for 24 hours. Diameter of zones of inhibition of all the plates was measured using digital vernier callipers. The mean score of zones of inhibition was calculated. RESULTS: Results of the study showed that all four concentrations of Cranberry extract showed comparatively less significant antimicrobial property against the microorganisms, compared to 0.2% Chlorhexidine. CONCLUSION: This study showed that 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/ml Cranberry extract does not have significant antimicrobial efficacy against periodontopathogens, compared to that of 0.2% Chlorhexidine.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon ) Proanthocyanadin Complexes with Proteins Modulate the Macrophage Activation

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Carballo S, Haas L, Krueger C, Reed JD
Journal: 
Food Funct DOI:10.1039/C7FO00688H
Abstract: 

In this work we characterize the interaction of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PAC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and determine the effects of these complexes on macrophage activation and antigen presentation. We isolated PAC from cranberry and complexed the isolated PAC with BSA and HEL. The properties of the PAC-protein complexes were studied by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel electrophoresis and zeta-potential. The effects of PAC-BSA complexes on macrophage activation were studied in RAW 264.7 macrophage like cells after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fluorescent microscopy was used to study endocytosis of PAC-BSA complexes. The effects of PAC complexes on macrophage antigen presentation was studied in an in vitro model of HEL antigen presentation by mouse peritoneal mononuclear cells to a T-cell hybridoma. Mass spectra of PAC complexes with BSA and HEL differed from spectra of the proteins alone by the presence of broad shoulders on the singly and doubly charged protein peaks. Complexation with PAC altered the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in native agarose gel and the electrophoretic mobility (ζ-potential) values. These results indicate that the PAC-protein complexes are stable and alter protein structure without precipitating the protein. Fluorescent microscopy showed that RAW 264.7 macrophages endocytosed BSA and PAC-BSA complexes in discrete vesicles that surrounded the nucleus. Macrophages treated with increasing amounts of PAC-BSA complexes had significantly reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison to controls. PAC-HEL complexes modulated antigen uptake, processing and presentation in murine peritoneal macrophages. After 4 h of pre-incubation, only trace amounts of IL-2 were detected in the co-cultures treated with HEL alone, whereas a PAC-HEL complex had already reached maximum IL-2 expression. Cranberry PAC may increase rate of endocytose of HEL and subsequent expression of IL-2 by the T-cell hybridomas. These results suggest that PAC-protein complexes modulate aspects of innate and acquired immune responses in macrophages.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract Treatment Improves Triglyceridemia, Liver Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis, Oxidative Damage and Corticosteronemia in Rats Rendered Obese by High Fat Diet.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Peixoto TC; Moura EG; de Oliveira E; Soares PN; Guarda DS; Bernardino DN; Ai XX; Rodrigues VDST; de Souza GR; da Silva AJR; Figueiredo MS; Manhaes AC; Lisboa PC.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition DOI 10.1007/s00394-017-1467-2
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. METHODS: At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed.RESULTS: HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. CONCLUSION: Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

Effect of Sweetened Dried Cranberry Consumption on Urinary Proteome and Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Human Subjects.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Bekiares N; Krueger CG; Meudt JJ; Shanmuganayagam D; Reed JD.
Journal: 
OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology DOI: 10.1089/omi.2016.016
Abstract: 

The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12h) state. The subjects then consumed one serving (42g) of SDC daily with lunch for 2 weeks. Urine and fecal samples were collected again the day after 2 weeks of SDC consumption. Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometry of urinary proteins showed that consumption of SDC resulted in changes to 22 urinary proteins. Multiplex sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in fecal samples indicated changes in relative abundance of several bacterial taxonomic units after consumption of SDC. There was a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, increases in commensal bacteria, and decreases or the absence of bacteria associated with negative health effects. A decrease in uromodulin in all subjects and an increase in Akkermansia bacteria in most subjects were observed and warrant further investigation. Future larger clinical studies with multiomics and multitissue sampling designs are required to determine the effects of SDC consumption on nutrition and health.

Effects of Cranberry Extracts on Gene Expression in THP-1 Cells.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Hannon DB; Thompson JT; Khoo C; Juturu V; Vanden Heuvel JP.
Journal: 
Food Sciences and Nutrition. 5(1):148-159
Abstract: 

Cranberry contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive molecules that have health-promoting properties. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if cranberry extracts (CEs) contain phytochemicals that exert anti-inflammatory effects. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with two CEs (CE and 90MX) and subsequently challenged with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) expression was decreased in the CE-treated cells, indicative of an anti-inflammatory effect. Gene expression microarrays identified several immune-related genes that were responsive to CEs including interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 and 3 (IFIT 1 and 3), macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) and colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2). In addition, in the CE-treated cells, metallothionein 1F and other metal-responsive genes were induced. Taken together, this data indicates that CEs contain bioactive components that have anti-inflammatory effects and may protect cells from oxidative damage.

Formulation of Thermoreversible Gel of Cranberry Juice Concentrate: Evaluation, Biocompatibility Studies and its Antimicrobial Activity Against Periodontal Pathogens.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Rajeshwari HR; Dhamecha D; Jagwani S; Patil D; Hegde S; Potdar R; Metgud R; Jalalpure S; Roy S; Jadhav K; Tiwari NK; Koduru S; Hugar S; Dodamani S.
Journal: 
Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications. 75:1506-1514
Abstract: 

The present work aims to investigate the efficacy of thermoreversible gel of cranberry juice concentrate (CJC) as local drug delivery for the treatment of periodontitis. CJC was initially tested for its antimicrobial activities like MIC, MBC, antiadhesion, antibiofilm and time kill assay against the panel of organisms (S. mutans (SM), E. faecalis (EF), A. actinomycetemcomitans (AA), P. gingivalis (PG), T. forsythia (TF)) responsible for periapical and periodontal infections. Antimicrobial activity of CJC showed MIC value of 50mg/ml and MBC value of 100mg/ml with desirable antiadhesion (83-90%) and antibiofilm activity (70-85%). CJC was evaluated for its biocompatibility using periodontal fibroblasts by cell based MTT assay and found to be nontoxic. Influence of CJC on periodontopathogen PG derived virulence factors (fimA and kgp) was studied using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique wherein down regulation of selected genes demonstrated inhibitory effect against PG virulence factors. Thermoreversible gel of CJC was formulated by cold method using poloxamer 407 as thermosensitive polymer and carbopol 934 as mucoadhesive polymer and evaluated for its gelation temperature, viscosity, gel strength and mucoadhesive strength. Comparison of optimized thermoreversible gel of CJC (500mg/ml) with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate gel (0.2%) using agar well diffusion demonstrated equal zone of inhibition against SM, EF, AA, PG & TF. Hence the formulated thermoreversible gel of CJC could serve as a novel herbal alternative to currently available periodontal treatment modalities.

Mechanism of Anti-rotavirus Synergistic Activity by Epigallocatechin Gallate and a Proanthocyanidin-Containing Nutraceutical.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Lipson SM; Karalis G; Karthikeyan L; Ozen FS; Gordon RE; Ponnala S; Bao J; Samarrai W; Wolfe E.
Journal: 
Food & Environmental Virology DOI 10.1007/s12560-017-9299-z
Abstract: 

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by <=10%. Similarly, EGCG (30 micro g/ml) and C-40 (25 micro g/ml), respectively, reduced RTV titers by 3 and 13%. However, RTV titers were reduced by 32% (p < .05) with both flavonoids used in combination. RTV was not recognized in host cells by electron microscopy 24-h post-inoculation. NMR and HPLC/MS findings revealed significant structural and potential changes in molecular weight of the flavonoids in complex.

Morphometric Abnormalities in Spleen and Kidney of the Progeny of Mice Fed American Cranberry Extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) During Pregnancy and Lactation.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Ba&#322;an BJ, Lewicki S, Siwicki AK, Stelmasiak M, Skopi&#324;ski P, Skopi&#324;ska-Ró&#380;ewska E, Wasiuty&#324;ski A, Zdanowski R.
Journal: 
Pol J Vet Sci. 20(1):57-65
Abstract: 

Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring. Spleens of progeny from experimental (E) group differed from the spleens of progeny of control mice in the lower number of lymphatic nodules and their larger diameter. Cytometry of spleen cells from progeny of E mothers revealed more CD19+ and CD8+ lymphocytes than in the control group. No difference was seen in the response to immunization by red blood cells of sheep (SRBC) between control and E offspring. An increase in the diameter of glomeruli was observed in the kidneys of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. No abnormalities in creatinine and urea serum level were observed. A higher concentration of VEGF and bFGF in E offspring sera in comparison to the controls was seen. CONCLUSION: Although the observed differences between the control and experimental group were not large, caution is recommended in using cranberries and their extracts during pregnancy until more research will be done on this topic.

Multidimensional Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Organic Juices with High Antioxidant Capacity.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Nowak D; Goslinski M; Szwengiel A.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 97(8):2657-2663
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTS: All the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L-1 ). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (~5000 mg Trolox equivalents L-1 ). Other samples had lower total polyphenols content and total antioxidant capacity. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSION: Chokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them to further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular disease prophylaxis

Photoprotective Effects of Cranberry Juice and its Various Fractions Against Blue Light-Induced Impairment in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Chang CH, Chiu HF, Han YC, Chen IH, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Wang CK.
Journal: 
Pharm Biol. 55(1):571-580.
Abstract: 

CONTEXT:Cranberry has numerous biological activities, including antioxidation, anticancer, cardioprotection, as well as treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), attributed to abundant phenolic contents.OBJECTIVE:The current study focused on the effect of cranberry juice (CJ) on blue light exposed human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells which mimic age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MATERIALS AND METHODS:Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis, as well as total antioxidant capacity and scavenging activity of cranberry ethyl acetate extract and different CJ fractions (condensed tannins containing fraction), were evaluated. In cell line model, ARPE-19 were irradiated with blue light at 450 nm wavelength for 10 h (mimic AMD) and treated with different fractions of CJ extract at different doses (5-50 μg/mL) by assessing the cell viability or proliferation rate using MTT assay (repairing efficacy).RESULTS:Phytochemical and HPLC analysis reveals the presence of several phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, quercetin) in ethyl acetate extract and different fractions of CJ. However, the condensed tannin containing fraction of ethyl acetate extract of CJ displayed the greater (p < 0.05) scavenging activity especially at the dose of 1 mg/mL. Similarly, the condensed tannin containing fraction at 50 μg/mL presented better (p < 0.05) repairing ability (increased cell viability). Furthermore, the oligomeric condensed tannin containing fraction display the best (p < 0.05) repairing efficiency at 50 μg/mL.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:In conclusion, this study distinctly proved that condensed tannin containing fraction of CJ probably exhibits better free radicals scavenging activity and thereby effectively protected the ARPE-19 cells and thus, hampers the progress of AMD.

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