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Morphometric Abnormalities in Spleen and Kidney of the Progeny of Mice Fed American Cranberry Extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) During Pregnancy and Lactation.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Bałan BJ, Lewicki S, Siwicki AK, Stelmasiak M, Skopiński P, Skopińska-Różewska E, Wasiutyński A, Zdanowski R.
Journal: 
Pol J Vet Sci. 20(1):57-65
Abstract: 

Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring. Spleens of progeny from experimental (E) group differed from the spleens of progeny of control mice in the lower number of lymphatic nodules and their larger diameter. Cytometry of spleen cells from progeny of E mothers revealed more CD19+ and CD8+ lymphocytes than in the control group. No difference was seen in the response to immunization by red blood cells of sheep (SRBC) between control and E offspring. An increase in the diameter of glomeruli was observed in the kidneys of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. No abnormalities in creatinine and urea serum level were observed. A higher concentration of VEGF and bFGF in E offspring sera in comparison to the controls was seen. CONCLUSION: Although the observed differences between the control and experimental group were not large, caution is recommended in using cranberries and their extracts during pregnancy until more research will be done on this topic.

Multidimensional Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Organic Juices with High Antioxidant Capacity.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Nowak D; Goslinski M; Szwengiel A.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 97(8):2657-2663
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTS: All the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L-1 ). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (~5000 mg Trolox equivalents L-1 ). Other samples had lower total polyphenols content and total antioxidant capacity. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSION: Chokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them to further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular disease prophylaxis

Photoprotective Effects of Cranberry Juice and its Various Fractions Against Blue Light-Induced Impairment in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Chang CH, Chiu HF, Han YC, Chen IH, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Wang CK.
Journal: 
Pharm Biol. 55(1):571-580.
Abstract: 

CONTEXT:Cranberry has numerous biological activities, including antioxidation, anticancer, cardioprotection, as well as treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), attributed to abundant phenolic contents.OBJECTIVE:The current study focused on the effect of cranberry juice (CJ) on blue light exposed human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells which mimic age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MATERIALS AND METHODS:Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis, as well as total antioxidant capacity and scavenging activity of cranberry ethyl acetate extract and different CJ fractions (condensed tannins containing fraction), were evaluated. In cell line model, ARPE-19 were irradiated with blue light at 450 nm wavelength for 10 h (mimic AMD) and treated with different fractions of CJ extract at different doses (5-50 μg/mL) by assessing the cell viability or proliferation rate using MTT assay (repairing efficacy).RESULTS:Phytochemical and HPLC analysis reveals the presence of several phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, quercetin) in ethyl acetate extract and different fractions of CJ. However, the condensed tannin containing fraction of ethyl acetate extract of CJ displayed the greater (p < 0.05) scavenging activity especially at the dose of 1 mg/mL. Similarly, the condensed tannin containing fraction at 50 μg/mL presented better (p < 0.05) repairing ability (increased cell viability). Furthermore, the oligomeric condensed tannin containing fraction display the best (p < 0.05) repairing efficiency at 50 μg/mL.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:In conclusion, this study distinctly proved that condensed tannin containing fraction of CJ probably exhibits better free radicals scavenging activity and thereby effectively protected the ARPE-19 cells and thus, hampers the progress of AMD.

Polyphenol Interactions Mitigate the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Gliadins.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Perot M; Lupi R; Guyot S; Delayre-Orthez C; Gadonna-Widehem P; Thebaudin JY; Bodinier M; Larre C.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 65(31):6442-6451
Abstract: 

Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated disorder. Polyphenols, which are known to interact with certain proteins, could be used to reduce allergic reactions. This study screened several polyphenol sources for their ability to interact with gliadins, mask epitopes, and affect basophil degranulation. Polyphenol extracts from artichoke leaves, cranberries, apples, and green tea leaves were examined. Of these extracts, the first three formed insoluble complexes with gliadins. Only the cranberry and apple extracts masked epitopes in dot blot assays using anti-gliadin IgG and IgE antibodies from patients with wheat allergies. The cranberry and artichoke extracts limited cellular degranulation by reducing mouse anti-gliadin IgE recognition. In conclusion, the cranberry extract is the most effective polyphenol source at reducing the immunogenicity and allergenicity of wheat gliadins.

Protein-Bound Vaccinium Fruit Polyphenols Decrease IgE Binding to Peanut Allergens and RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation In Vitro.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Plundrich, N. J. Bansode, R. R. Foegeding, E. A. Williams, L. L. Lila, M. A.
Journal: 
Food and Function 8(4):1611-1621
Abstract: 

Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation ( beta -hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p<0.05 (38% and 31% decrease, respectively). Sensitized RBL-2H3 cells challenged with antigen and ionomycin in the presence of protein-cranberry and blueberry polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in histamine and beta -hexosaminidase release (histamine: 65.5% and 65.8% decrease; beta -hexosaminidase: 60.7% and 45.4% decrease, respectively). The modification of peanut proteins with cranberry or blueberry polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.

UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-Based Global Metabolomics Reveal Metabolome Modifications in Plasma of Young Women after Cranberry Juice Consumption.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Liu H; Garrett TJ; Su Z; Khoo C; Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 45:67-76
Abstract: 

Plasma metabolome in young women following cranberry juice consumption were investigated using a global UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS approach. Seventeen female college students, between 21 and 29 years old, were given either cranberry juice or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Plasma samples were collected before and after juice consumption. Plasma metabolomes were analyzed using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS followed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). S-plot was used to identify discriminant metabolites. Validated OPLS-DA analyses showed that the plasma metabolome in young women, including both exogenous and endogenous metabolites, were altered following cranberry juice consumption. Cranberry juice caused increases of exogenous metabolites including quinic acid, vanilloloside, catechol sulfate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol sulfate, coumaric acid sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, 5-(trihydroxphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 3-(hydroxyphenyl)proponic acid, hydroxyphenylacetic acid and trihydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, the plasma levels of endogenous metabolites including citramalic acid, aconitic acid, hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, hippuric acid, 2-hydroxyhippuric acid, vanilloylglycine, 4-acetamido-2-aminobutanoic acid, dihydroxyquinoline, and glycerol 3-phosphate were increased in women following cranberry juice consumption. The metabolic differences and discriminant metabolites observed in this study may serve as biomarkers of cranberry juice consumption and explain its health promoting properties in human.

Polyphenol Characterization, Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Proliferation and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Cranberry Pomace

Posted: 
March 6, 2017
Authors: 
Rupasinghe V, Neir SV, Parmar I
Journal: 
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 6(11):754-68
Abstract: 

Background: Cranberry pomace (CP), an underutilized by-product from juice processing, contains a wide range of biologically active compounds that can be recovered and used in a variety of applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Methods: In this study, analytical chemical techniques such as solvent extractions and characterization of extracts in respect with their phenolic content were performed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and spectrophotometry. Crude CP extract and its phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins–rich fractions were then evaluated for their anti-oxidant capacity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and anti-proliferation activity against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Results: On a dry weight basis, the different CP fractions contained seven major anthocyanins (0.1-125 mg/g), six major phenolic acids (0.8-31 mg/g), seven flavonols (1-126 mg/g) and five flavan-3-ols (0.1-12 mg/g). Fractions rich in flavonols exhibited the most potent antioxidant capacities with ferric ion reducing antioxidant power values of 1.8-1.9 mmole/g and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging IC50 values of 15.1-15.2 mg/L respectively. On the other hand, fractions rich in phenolic acids and flavan-3-ol monomers demonstrated the most potent anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=6.1-6.2 mg/L) and anti-proliferative activity (IC50=7.8-15.8 mg/L). Generally, all the fractions exhibited a dose-response relationship in the selected biological activity assays.Conclusion: This study suggests an effective utilization of CP to obtain biologically active fractions with potential to be used in functional foods and nutraceuticals designed for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Ability of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins in Combination with a Probiotic Formulation to Inhibit in Vitro Invasion of Gut Epithelial Cells by Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. Coli

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Polewski MA, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Leyer G
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 25:123-134
Abstract: 

Cranberries and probiotics are individually considered as functional foods. This study evaluated the potential synergy between bioactive proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) derived from cranberries and probiotics on reducing the invasiveness of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in a cell culture model. ExPEC can be a component of the gut microbiota in healthy individuals, and reducing the invasiveness of ExPEC is a potential means to lessen the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections (UTI), the most common bacterial infections in women. c-PAC (>92% A-type) concentrations greater than 36 micro g c-PAC/mL significantly (p<0.05) reduced ExPEC invasion, and was not inhibited by the presence of probiotics. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the mechanism by which c-PAC prevent ExPEC invasion is by cross-linking surface virulence factors. A probiotic blend also significantly reduced invasion, albeit via a different mechanism. This study demonstrated the potential benefit of combining functional A-type c-PAC components in cranberry foods with probiotics.

Comparison of A-type Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry and Peanut Skin Extracts Using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Ye L, Neilson A, Sarnoski P, Ray WK, Duncan S
Journal: 
J Mol Genet Med. 2016;10(209):1747-086
Abstract: 

Cranberry products have long been used to treat urinary tract infections. It is believed that the A-type proanthocyanidins in cranberries contribute to this function. Peanut is one of the other, few food sources that primarily contain A-type proanthocyanidins. The skin on the outside of the peanut kernels (testa), which is treated as an agriculture waste product, contains high levels of A-type proanthocyanidins. In this study, an HPLC diol column separation method and MALDI-TOF MS were used to characterize and compare the proanthocyanidin compositions of peanut skins and cranberries. MALDI-TOF MS in linear mode was able to detect a group of proanthocyanidins with DP (degree of polymerization) 10 in peanut skin extract, but was only able to detect DP 8 in cranberry extract.The reflectron mode showed clusters of clear narrow peaks at DP 7 in peanut skin extract, while the highest DP resolved for cranberry extract was only 3 in reflectron mode. This might be due to the low response intensity of the cranberry samples with the current cleanup method and the matrix. Based on the resolved peaks in reflectron mode, peanut skins and cranberries have similar proanthocyanidins composition; they contain both A-type and B-type proanthocyanidins, with the A-type being predominant. This result may inspire future studies on the comparison of biological functions between peanut skins and cranberries and further comparison of their polymeric proanthocyanidin composition.

Cranberry Extract Standardized for Proanthocyanidins Alleviates Beta -Amyloid Peptide Toxicity by Improving Proteostasis Through HSF-1 in Caenorhabditis Elegans Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Guo H, Cao M, Zou S, Ye B, Dong Y
Journal: 
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 71(12):1564-1573
Abstract: 

A growing body of evidence suggests that nutraceuticals with prolongevity properties may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently demonstrated that a proanthocyanidins-standardized cranberry extract has properties that prolong life span and promote innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this article, we report that supplementation of this cranberry extract delayed A beta toxicity-triggered body paralysis in the C. elegans AD model. Genetic analyses indicated that the cranberry-mediated A beta toxicity alleviation required heat shock transcription factor (HSF)-1 rather than DAF-16 and SKN-1. Moreover, cranberry supplementation increased the transactivity of HSF-1 in an IIS-dependent manner. Further studies found that the cranberry extract relies on HSF-1 to significantly enhance the solubility of proteins in aged worms, implying an improved proteostasis in AD worms. Considering that HSF-1 plays a pivotal role in maintaining proteostasis, our results suggest that cranberry maintains the function of proteostasis through HSF-1, thereby protecting C. elegans against A beta toxicity. Together, our findings elucidated the mechanism whereby cranberry attenuated A beta toxicity in C. elegans and stressed the significance of proteostasis in the prevention of age-related diseases from a practical point of view.

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