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Dietary Cranberry Suppressed Colonic Inflammation and Alleviated Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Treated Mice.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Cai XiaoKun; Han YanHui; Gu Min; Song MingYue; Wu Xian; Li ZhengZe; Li Fang; Goulette, T.; Xiao Hang
Journal: 
Food and Function; 2019. 10(10):6331-6341
Abstract: 

Increased consumption of fruits may decrease the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important etiological role in IBD. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of dietary cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the colon and its role on gut microbiota were unclear. In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory efficacy of whole cranberry in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, as well as its effects on the structure of gut microbiota. The results showed that dietary cranberry significantly decreased the severity of colitis in DSS-treated mice, evidenced by increased colon length, and decreased disease activity and histologic score of colitis in DSS-treated mice compared to the positive control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta , IL-6 and TNF- alpha ) were significantly reduced by cranberry supplementation (p<0.05). Analysis of the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in phylum and genus levels revealed that DSS treatment significantly altered the microbial structure of fecal microbiota in mice. alpha diversity was significantly decreased in the DSS group, compared to the healthy control group. But, cranberry treatment significantly improved DSS-induced decline in alpha -diversity. Moreover, cranberry treatment partially reversed the change of gut microbiota in colitic mice by increasing the abundance of potential beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing the abundance of potential harmful bacteria, such as Sutterella and Bilophila. Overall, our results for the first time demonstrated that modification of gut microbiota by dietary whole cranberry might contribute to its inhibitory effects against the development of colitis in DSS-treated mice.

Pure Polyphenols and Cranberry Juice High in Anthocyanins Increase Antioxidant Capacity in Animal Organs.

Posted: 
March 16, 2020
Authors: 
Bariexca, T. Ezdebski, J. Redan, B. W. Vinson, J.
Journal: 
Foods; 2019. 8(8):340.
Abstract: 

Anthocyanins and the broader class of polyphenols are strong antioxidants in vitro. Polyphenols are one of the major antioxidants in plant foods, and the beverages derived from them. There is extensive evidence in the literature that polyphenols are beneficial to health. In order to be bioactive in vivo, they need to be bioavailable and be transported from the circulation to target organs. To date, there have been few studies testing the extent to which polyphenols and especially anthocyanins affect the antioxidant capacity of animal organs. In our first pilot study, we investigated how three pure polyphenols (the flavonoids quercetin, catechin and hesperetin) given to rats by intraperitoneal injection (49 to 63 mg/kg) affected their organ antioxidant capacity. This was followed by a subsequent study that injected one ml of 100% cranberry juice (high in anthocyanins) to hamsters. Antioxidant capacity of animal organs was determined by using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) colorimetric assay on methanolic extracts of select rat organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, prostate and brain) and in the hamster organs (i.e., liver, kidney, heart, bladder and brain). Overall the results showed that antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p<0.05) in experimental vs. control organs. Analysis of organs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from both animal studies provided evidence of polyphenol metabolites in the organ extracts. Taken together, this study provides data that the administration of anthocyanins and other polyphenols cause an increase in organ antioxidant capacity in two animal models. This result supports the growing evidence for the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols reduce the risk and extent of various chronic disease at the disease site.

Cranberry Attenuates Progression of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Shimizu K; Ono M; Imoto A; Nagayama H; Tetsumura N; Terada T; Tomita K; Nishinaka T.
Journal: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 42(8):1295-1302
Abstract: 

Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.

Cranberry Polyphenols: Natural Weapons Against Dental Caries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Dentistry Journal. 7(1)
Abstract: 

Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such as bacterial acidogenicity, aciduricity, glucan synthesis, and hydrophobicity. Cranberry phenols have the ability to disrupt these cariogenic virulence properties without being bactericidal, a key quality essential for retaining the benefits of the symbiotic resident oral microbiome and preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. This review discusses the cariostatic mechanisms of specific cranberry phytochemicals and their potential use as therapeutic agents against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention and control of dental caries.

Development of a Cranberry Standard for Quantification of Insoluble Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Proanthocyanidins.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gullickson ER; Krueger CG; Birmingham A; Maranan M; Reed JD.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03696 [doi]
Abstract: 

Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) can be partitioned into soluble PACs, which are extracted with solvents, and insoluble PACs, which remain associated with fibers and proteins after extraction. Most research on cranberry products only quantifies soluble PACs because proper standards for quantifying insoluble PACs are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a cranberry PAC (c-PAC) standard, reflective of the structural heterogeneity of PACs found in cranberry fruit, to quantify insoluble PACs by the butanol-hydrochloric acid (BuOH-HCl) method. For the first time, a c-PAC standard enabled conversion of BuOH-HCl absorbance values (550 nm) to a weight (milligram) basis, allowing for quantification of insoluble PACs in cranberries. The use of the c-PAC reference standard for sequential analysis of soluble PACs by the method of 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde and insoluble PACs by the method of BuOH-HCl provides analytical tools for the standardization of cranberry-based ingredients.

Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 59(11):1816-1828
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Evaluation of the Degree of Polymerization of the Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry by Molecular Sieving and Characterization of the Low Molecular Weight Fractions by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gardana, C. Simonetti, P.
Journal: 
Molecules. 24(8):1504
Abstract: 

4-dimethylammino-cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assays quantify total proanthocyanidins (PACs) but do not provide qualitative PAC molecular weight distribution information and cannot discriminate between A- and B-type PACs. We developed an efficient method for assessing PAC molecular weight distributions. The PACs from three commercial cranberry extracts (A1-A3) were fractionated by molecular sieves with cut-offs of 3, 10, 30, 50, and 100 kDa, and each fraction was analyzed by DMAC assays. A1, A2, and A3 contained 27%, 33%, and 15% PACs, respectively. Approximately 28 PACs, 20 flavonols, and 15 phenolic acids were identified by UHPLC-DAD-Orbitrap MS in A1 and A3, while A2 contained only flavan-3-ols. Epicatechin was the main monomer in A1 and A3, and catechin was the main in A2. Procyanidin A2 was the main dimer in A1 and A3, representing more than 85% of the total dimers, while it constituted approximately only 24% of A2. A1 and A3 contained quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, and their glycosides, which were totally absent in A2. In A1 and A3 the PACs were mainly distributed in the fractions 30-3 and <3 kDa, while in A2 more than 70% were present in the fraction less than 3 kDa. Overall, obtained data strongly suggests that A2 is not cranberry-derived, or is adulterated with another source of PACs.

Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Aggregate Complexation Suppresses Allergic Sensitization to Peanut by Reducing Peanut-Specific IgE in C3H/HeJ Mice.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Bansode RR; Randolph PD; Plundrich NJ; Lila MA; Williams LL.
Journal: 
Food Chemistry. 299:125025
Abstract: 

Peanut allergy is usually lifelong and accidental exposure impose formidable risk. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of peanut proteins complexed to polyphenol extracts to reduce allergic response in C3H/HeJ mice. Mice were sensitized to peanut flour followed by exposure to amino acid diets fortified with peanut protein-polyphenol aggregates of either with low (15%; w/w) or high (40%; w/w) complexation ratios of blueberry (BB-Low and BB-High) and cranberry (CB-Low and CB-High) extracts. Treatment groups on diets with high complexation ratios of blueberry and cranberry aggregates showed significant reduction in peanut specific plasma Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Western blot analysis of spleen lysates showed CD63 protein expression was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in blueberry and cranberry complexed peanut protein supplemented diet groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that complexation of polyphenols to peanut flour can potentially lower plasma IgE of peanut-sensitized C3H/HeJ mice.

Randomized Controlled Study to Evaluate Microbial Ecological Effects of CPP-ACP and Cranberry on Dental Plaque.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Leishman SJ; Bandara HMHN; Healey DL; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Jdr Clinical & Translational Research. 10.1177/2380084419859871 [doi]
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to dental caries prevention play a key role in attaining long-term control over the disease and maintaining a symbiotic oral microbiome.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the microbial ecological effects of 2 interventional dentifrices: a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) dentifrice and the same dentifrice supplemented with a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract.METHODS: The interventional toothpastes were compared with each other and with an active control fluoride dentifrice in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to determine changes in the bacterial loads of 14 key bacterial species (8 caries associated and 6 health associated) in the dental plaque of trial participants after they used the dentifrices for 5 to 6 wk.RESULTS: From the baseline to the recall visit, significant differences were observed between the treatment groups in the bacterial loads of 2 caries-associated bacterial species (Streptococcus mutans [P < 0.001] and Veillonella parvula [P < 0.001]) and 3 health-associated bacterial species (Corynebacterium durum [P = 0.008], Neisseria flavescens [P = 0.005], and Streptococcus sanguinis [P < 0.001]). Compared to the fluoride control dentifrice, the CPP-ACP dentifrice demonstrated significant differences for S. mutans (P = 0.032), C. durum (P = 0.007), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001), while combination CPP-ACP-cranberry dentifrice showed significant differences for S. mutans (P < 0.001), V. parvula (P < 0.001), N. flavescens (P = 0.003), and S. sanguinis (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in the bacterial load comparisons between the CPP-ACP and combination dentifrices for any of the targeted bacterial species (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results indicate that dentifrices containing CPP-ACP and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts can influence a species-level shift in the ecology of the oral microbiome, resulting in a microbial community less associated with dental caries (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ANZCTR 12618000095268).KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: The results of this randomized controlled trial indicate that dentifrices containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and polyphenol-rich cranberry extracts were able to beneficially modulate the microbial ecology of dental plaque in a group of high caries-risk patients. This could contribute toward lowering the risk of developing new caries lesions, an important goal sought by patients, clinicians, and policy makers.

Synergistic Cranberry Juice Combinations with Natural-Borne Antimicrobials for the Eradication of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Biofilm Within a Short Time.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Kim, H. W. Chung, D. H. Kim, S. A. Rhee, M. S.
Journal: 
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 68(4):321-328.
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTI), one of the most common diseases in humans, are caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Cranberry juice (CB) is a widely known prophylaxis for UTI, but the treatment of CB alone could not effectively eradicate preformed UPEC biofilms. The aim of this study was to develop enforced CB composites within a short time by adding a small quantity of natural borne antimicrobials. UPEC biofilms (initial: 6.0 log CFU per cm2), formed on silicone coupons in artificial urine medium, were exposed to CB (4-8%), caprylic acid (CAR; 0.025-0.05%) and thymol (TM; 0.025-0.05%) at 37 degrees C for 1 min. Individual treatment of each compound did not show the significant antibacterial effect on UPEC biofilms (P>0.05). Otherwise, the survivor counts of biofilms were synergistically reduced with CB containing any of the antimicrobials. For example combined treatment with CB (8%)+CAR (0.05%)+TM (0.05%) resulted in a 6 log reduction in UPEC populations in the biofilm (no detectable bacteria remained) with 4.6 log of synergistic bactericidal effect. The confocal laser scanning microscope images indicated that any composites including TM might result in biofilm detachment from the surface. The present method is cost-effective and more acceptable to consumers as it is based on the synergistic interaction of natural borne antimicrobials. The results of this study could be widely applicable in the functional food, medical and healthcare field.

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