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Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 1-13. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1430019 [doi]
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Effects of Superfoods on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Trials.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
van den Driessche JJ; Plat J; Mensink RP.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 9(4):1944-1966
Abstract: 

Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti- Beta -Amyloid Aggregation.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ma H, Johnson SL, Liu W, DaSilva NA, Meschwitz S, Dain JA, Seeram NP
Journal: 
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;19(2):461.
Abstract: 

Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as beta -amyloid (A beta ). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-A beta aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 micro g/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 micro g/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced A beta fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 micro g/mL) reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-A beta fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

Proanthocyanidins-Will they Effectively Restrain Conspicuous Bacterial Strains Devolving on Urinary Tract Infection?

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Jagannathan V; Viswanathan P.
Journal: 
Journal of Basic Microbiology. 58(7):567-578
Abstract: 

Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. It predominantly contains proanthocyanidins that belong to the class of polyphenols with repeating catechin and epicatechin monomeric units. Numerous studies have correlated proanthocyanidin consumption and prevention of bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Quorum sensing (QS) is the prime mechanism that drives bacteria to coordinate biofilm development and virulence expression. Reports have shown that proanthocyanidins are effective in disrupting cell-cell communication by quenching signal molecules. Overall, this review assesses the merits of proanthocyanidins and its effective oppression on adherence, motility, QS, and biofilm formation of major UTI strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis by comparing and evaluating results from many significant findings.

Regulation of Redox Status in Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Juice, Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon A.) Juice and Cyanidin.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Casedas G; Gonzalez-Burgos E; Smith C; Lopez V; Gomez-Serranillos MP.
Journal: 
Food & Chemical Toxicology. 118:572-580.
Abstract: 

Blueberry and cranberry are fruits with high polyphenol content, particularly anthocyanins. As cyanidin derivatives have been identified as one of the most representative polyphenols in berry juices, cyanidin has been designated for a better comparison and understanding of the potential neuroprotection of juices obtained from two Vaccinium species. Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were previously treated with different concentrations of lyophilized blueberry juice, cranberry juice or cyanidin for 24h and oxidative stress was then generated with hydrogen peroxide (100muM) for 30min. Cytoprotective properties of cranberry juice, blueberry juice or cyanidin were evaluated using different methodologies such as mitochondrial activity (MTT), TBARS and ROS production, antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD) and antioxidant properties (ORAC, FRAP). Results indicated that blueberry and cranberry juices as well as cyanidin increased mitochondrial activity and reduced intracellular ROS production and lipid peroxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, these berry juices and cyanidin upregulated the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Finally, in vitro antioxidant capacities were confirmed by ORAC and FRAP assays demonstrating the potential of cyanidin and cyanidin-containing products for pharmaceutical or nutritional applications to prevent oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

Single-Laboratory Validation for Determination of Total soluble Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry Using 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sintara, M. Li Lin Cunningham, D. G. Prior, R. L. Wu XianLi Chang, T.
Journal: 
Journal of AOAC International; 101(3):805-809
Abstract: 

American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is native to Eastern North America. Recent studies have suggested that the A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberries are effective in preventing urinary tract infection. To meet the growing interest in the cranberry market, an accurate, reliable, and simple method to determine PAC concentration is needed. In this study, a modified method using 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to quantify total PACs in cranberry products was validated. Cranberry juice extract powder, cranberry capsules containing juice extract, and cranberry juice concentrate were used as the samples in this study. With the modified method, the calibration curves for proanthocyanidin A2 had correlation coefficients (r2) of >0.99. The recoveries of two different concentrations after spiking were 97.1 and 99.1%, and the RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were <2.7 and <1.6%, respectively.

The Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract Treatment Improves Triglyceridemia, Liver Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis, Oxidative Damage and Corticosteronemia in Rats Rendered Obese by High Fat Diet.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Peixoto TC; Moura EG; de Oliveira E; Soares PN; Guarda DS; Bernardino DN; Ai XX; Rodrigues VDST; de Souza GR; da Silva AJR; Figueiredo MS; Manhaes AC; Lisboa PC.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition. 57(5):1829-1844,
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. METHODS: At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed. RESULTS: HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. CONCLUSION: Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

A Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extract Reverses Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis Independently of Body Weight Loss.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Anhe FF; Nachbar RT; Varin TV; Vilela V; Dudonne S; Pilon G; Fournier M; Lecours MA; Desjardins Y; Roy D; Levy E; Marette A.
Journal: 
Molecular Metabolism. 6(12):1563-1573
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from various sources can prevent obesity and associated gastro-hepatic and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, whether such extracts can reverse obesity-linked metabolic alterations remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a polyphenol-rich extract from cranberry (CE) to reverse obesity and associated metabolic disorders in DIO-mice. METHODS: Mice were pre-fed either a Chow or a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet for 13 weeks to induce obesity and then treated either with CE (200mg/kg, Chow+CE, HFHS+CE) or vehicle (Chow, HFHS) for 8 additional weeks. RESULTS: CE did not reverse weight gain or fat mass accretion in Chow- or HFHS-fed mice. However, HFHS+CE fully reversed hepatic steatosis and this was linked to upregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism (e.g., PPARalpha) and downregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes (eg, COX2, TNFalpha) in the liver. These findings were associated with improved glucose tolerance and normalization of insulin sensitivity in HFHS+CE mice. The gut microbiota of HFHS+CE mice was characterized by lower Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and a drastic expansion of Akkermansia muciniphila and, to a lesser extent, of Barnesiella spp, as compared to HFHS controls. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CE, without impacting body weight or adiposity, can fully reverse HFHS diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis while triggering A. muciniphila blooming in the gut microbiota, thus underscoring the gut-liver axis as a primary target of cranberry polyphenols.

Co-Supplementation of Isomalto-Oligosaccharides Potentiates Metabolic Health Benefits of Polyphenol-Rich Cranberry Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice Via Enhanced Gut Butyrate Production.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Singh DP; Singh S; Bijalwan V; Kumar V; Khare P; Baboota RK; Singh P; Boparai RK; Singh J; Kondepudi KK; Chopra K; Bishnoi M.
Journal: 
Eur J Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1561-5
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg). Cecal short-chain fatty acids, abundances of selected (1) butyrate producing, (2) metabolically beneficial, and (3) selective lipopolysaccharides producing gram negative gut bacteria were studied. Further, gut-related histological, biochemical, genomic changes along with circulating pro-/anti-inflammatory markers and systemic obesity-associated metabolic changes were studied. RESULTS: Co-supplementation of CRX and IMOs significantly improved cecal SCFAs, especially butyrate levels, selected butyrate-producing bacteria (clostridial cluster XIVa bacteria) and butyrate kinase expression in HFD-fed mice. The combination also significantly improved gut beneficial bacterial abundance, gut histology and related changes (colon mucin production, gut permeability) as compared to individual agents. It also prevented HFD-induced systemic and tissue inflammation, glucose intolerance and systemic obesity-associated metabolic changes in adipose tissue and liver. The combination of CRX and IMOs appeared more effective in the prevention of HFD-induced gut derangements. CONCLUSION: Combination of CRX and IMOs could be advantageous for normalization of metabolic alterations seen in diet-induced obesity via beneficial modulation of gastrointestinal health.

Effect of Proanthocyanidin-Enriched Extracts on the inhibition of Wear and Degradation of Dentin Demineralized Organic Matrix.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Boteon AP; Kato MT; Buzalaf MAR; Prakki A; Wang L; Rios D; Honorio HM.
Journal: 
Archives of Oral Biology. 84:118-124
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cranberry and Grape seed-enriched extract gels in inhibiting wear and degradation of demineralized organic matrix (DOM). DESIGN: 225 dentin specimens obtained from bovine incisors were randomly allocated into 5 groups (n=45): 10% Grape seed extract gel (GSE), 10% Cranberry extract gel (CE), 0.012% Chlorhexidine gel (CX), 1.23% NaF gel (F), and no active compound gel (P, placebo). Before the treatments, samples were demineralized by immersion in 0.87M citric acid, pH 2.3 (36h). Then, the studied gels were applied once over dentin for 1min. Next, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva containing collagenase obtained from Clostridium histolyticum for 5days. The response variable for dentin wear was depth of dentin loss measured by profilometry and for collagen degradation was hydroxyproline determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and Pearson Correlation Test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Grape seed extract significantly reduced dentin wear compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Cranberry extract and Chlorhexidine did not differ statistically and were able to reduce wear when compared to NaF and placebo treatments. The hydroxyproline analysis showed that there was no significant difference among groups for all treatments (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the amount of degraded DOM evaluated by profilometry and the determination of hydroxyproline. CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract was able to reduce the dentin wear and collagen degradation, likely due to the proanthocyanidin content and its action. Therefore, Cranberry could be suggested as an interesting natural-based agent to prevent dentin erosion.

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