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The Effects of Berry Extracts on Oxidative Stress in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Microglial Cells: A Potential Cardioprotective and Neuroprotective Mechanism

Currie, Tanisha L.; Engler, Marguerite M.; Olsen, Cara H.; Krauthamer, Victor; Scott, Jonathan M.; Deuster, Patricia A.; Flagg, Thomas P.
MOLECULES 27(9):2789. 10.3390/molecules27092789

Oxidative stress is a key underlying factor in cognitive decline and atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress occurs at the cellular level with an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and a deficiency in antioxidants. Mounting evidence suggests that berry flavonoids may promote cellular health by exerting antioxidant properties. Black currant and various berry extracts were tested in microglia (BV-2) and cardiomyocyte (HL-1) cell lines to study their biological effects. The principal ingredients in black currant and cranberry extract-delphinidin 3-rutinoside (D3R) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), were also assessed. A menadione-induced oxidative stressor was used, and its output was quantified to detect oxidative stress (CellROX (TM)). Black currant extract had similar antioxidant effects as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in HL-1 cells with regard to cellular protection, whereas cranberry extract was ineffective. In contrast, cranberry extract was comparable in effectiveness to black currant extract in BV-2 cells. D3R and C3G also reduced oxidative stress similarly to whole berry extracts, which indicates that these ingredients may confer the antioxidant effects of berries. Black currant and cranberry extracts inhibit oxidative stress in microglial and cardiomyocyte cell lines. Black currant extract was more effective in reducing oxidative stress in the HL-1 cells, whereas cranberry extract was comparable in reducing oxidative stress in the BV-2 cells. The results suggest that berry flavonoids exert neuro- and cardioprotective effects.