A Cranberry Concentrate Decreases Adhesion and Invasion of Escherichia coli (AIEC) LF82 In Vitro.
While many beneficial host-microbiota interactions have been described, imbalanced microbiota in the gut is speculated to contribute to the progression and recurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD). This in vitro study evaluated the impact of a cranberry concentrate Type M (CTM) on adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) LF82, a pathobiont associated with CD. Different stages of pathogenic infection were investigated: (i) colonization of the mucus layer, and (ii) adhesion to and (iii) invasion of the epithelial cells. Following 48 h of fecal batch incubation, 0.5 and 1 mM of CTM significantly altered AIEC LF82 levels in a simulated mucus layer, resulting in a decrease of 50.5% in the untreated blank, down to 43.0% and 11.4%, respectively. At 1 mM of CTM, the significant decrease in the levels of AIEC LF82 coincided with a stimulation of the metabolic activity of the background microbiota. The increased levels of health-associated acetate (+7.9 mM) and propionate levels (+3.5 mM) suggested selective utilization of CTM by host microorganisms. Furthermore, 1 mM of both fermented and unfermented CTM decreased the adhesion and invasion of human-derived epithelial Caco-2 cells by AIEC LF82. Altogether, this exploratory in vitro study demonstrates the prebiotic potential of CTM and supports its antipathogenic effects through direct and/or indirect modulation of the gut microbiome.