The antimicrobial effects of cranberry against Staphylococcus aureus
The antimicrobial effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on a major food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, were investigated using commercially obtained Lakewood® organic cranberry juice and Ocean Spray® cranberry juice cocktail and four other berry fruit extracts (acai berry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry). The results showed that cranberry is a potent antimicrobial against S. aureus and the most potent among the berries studied. The order of percentage inhibition of bacterial growth at the same concentration of phenolic materials as gallic acid equivalents was Lakewood cranberry juice > Ocean Spray cranberry juice ≫ blueberry > acai berry ≫ raspberry ≫ strawberry. The antimicrobial effect was not due to the acidity of the berries as NaOH-neutralized samples were almost as effective in terms of percentage inhibition of viable cell growth. Solid-phase extraction of cranberry juice using C18 solid phase showed that the antimicrobial effects reside exclusively with the C18-bound materials.