Chronic Consumption of a Low Calorie, High Polyphenol Cranberry Beverage Attenuates Inflammation and Improves Glucoregulation and HDL Cholesterol in Healthy Overweight Humans: a Randomized Controlled Trial.
PURPOSE: We studied the health benefits of low calorie cranberry beverage consumption on glucoregulation, oxidative damage, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in overweight but otherwise healthy humans. METHODS: 78 overweight or obese men and women (30-70 years; BMI 27-35 kg/m2) with abdominal adiposity (waist: hip>0.8 for women and >0.9 for men; waist: height>=0.5) consumed 450 mL placebo or low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry extract beverage (CEB) daily for 8 week in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Blood and urine samples were collected after overnight fast at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily beverage consumption. Blood and urine samples were also collected during 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) challenges: (1) pre-intervention without the test beverages, (2) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at baseline (week 0), and (3) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at 8 week. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, a single CEB dose at baseline lowered endothelin-1 and elevated nitric oxide and the reduced:oxidized glutathione ratio (P<0.05). Interferon-gamma was elevated (P<0.05) after a single CEB dose at baseline; however, after 8 week of CEB intervention, fasting C-reactive protein was lower (P<0.05). CEB consumption for 8 week also reduced serum insulin and increased HDL cholesterol compared to placebo (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute dose of low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry beverage improved antioxidant status, while 8 week daily consumption reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors by improving glucoregulation, downregulating inflammatory biomarkers, and increasing HDL cholesterol.