Comprehensive assessment of the quality of commercial cranberry products. Phenolic characterization and in vitro bioactivity
Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) products have been widely recommended in traditional American medicine for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 19 different commercial cranberry products from American and European markets have been analyzed by different global phenolic methods and by UPLC-DAD-ESI-TQ MS. In addition, in vitro antioxidant capacity and uropathogenic bacterial antiadhesion activity tests have been performed. Results revealed that products found in the market widely differed in their phenolic content and distribution, including products completely devoid of flavan-3-ols to highly purified ones, either in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) or in anthocyanins. The product presentation form and polyphenolic profile widely affected the antiadhesion activity, ranging from a negative (nulel) effect to a MIC = 0.5 mg/mL for cranberry powders and a MIC=112 mg/mL for gel capsule samples. Only 4 of 19 products would provide the recommended dose of intake of 36 mg total PACs/day. Of most importance was the fact that this dose would actually provide as low as 0.00 and up to 205 μg/g of procyanidin A2, indicating the lack of product standardization and incongruence between global and individual compound analysis.