Consumption of Cranberry Functional Beverage Reduces Gingival Index and Plaque Index in Patients with Gingivitis.
Periodontal disease is highly prevalent worldwide, and consumption of certain foods, such as fruits, seem to improve the effectiveness of periodontal therapy (PT) due to their antiadhesive, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties. We hypothesized that the cranberry functional beverage (CFB) consumed for eight weeks improves gingival inflammation indices via inhibition of dental plaque, and alterations in antioxidant status, and systemic inflammation in patients with gingivitis. In this two-arm randomized controlled study, fifty participants were divided into an experimental group (CFB), administered daily with 750 ml CFB, or a control group administered the same amount of water. All patients underwent nonsurgical PT prior to the intervention. Gingival (GI) and bleeding on probing (BoP) indices of inflammation, plaque (PI) and approximal plaque (API) indices of dental plaque deposition, saliva and serum total antioxidant status (TAS), serum malonylodialdehyde level (MDA), and interleukin 1-beta level (IL-1beta) were measured pre- and postintervention. A risk of caries development was determined by Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus spp. (LAB) counts in supragingival dental plaque. Changes in GI and PI but not BoP and API were significantly more pronounced in the CFB group compared to the control group. Serum or saliva TAS, IL-1beta, and MDA did not differ between groups. The number of SM reduced in CFB, but not in the control group. We demonstrated that the consumption of CFB improves gingival and plaque indices without posing a risk of caries development. Thus CFB can be recommended as a safe adjunct for nonsurgical PT in patients with gingivitis.